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°5. What are the implications of ethical relativism with respect to intrinsic value? : Subjectivism “something is good because we like it” there is nothing good about promise keeping kindness and caring. These are valuable only because people approve of them. Relativist, the value of something depends entirely on whether a society’s guiding ideals approve of it. (idealschange so does the moral code). Ultimate moral principals can be fixed by prejudice, ignorance, and superficial thinking and still be correct. No matter what the relativist claims that our ultimate moral beliefs cannot be mistaken. °6. What are the implications of ethical relativism with respect to questioning one’s moral commitments?: Subjectivism is correct, then I know what is right so long as I knowwhat I approve of. Subjectivism is true this cannot make sense, since my approvals and disapprovals are the ultimate test of right and wrong. Same with Cultural, there is not room to second guessthe guiding ideals of ones society. But we tend to ask if its morallyacceptable but do we know what morality is all about. °7. What are the implications of ethical relativism with respect to moral progress?: The problem is that relativism andsubjectivism is that is can’t make sense of the most basic kind of moral progress. They cannot change for the better but they can change but no such change would mark a moral improvement. Subjectivism is correct the ultimate rule is personal opinion but if relativism is correct then ultimate rule is given by a society’s basic ideals.
°8. According to the author, how can ethical subjectivists avoid the problem of contradiction? : The solution implies that we usually don’t mean what we say in our moral debates. °What we say are…The death penalty is immoral.Abortion is wrong Eating animals is okayBut what we mean is this…The death penalty is wrong, according to me.I disapprove of abortion.As I see it, eating animals is okay.°9. What are ideal observers and how are they supposed to help ethical relativism overcome some of its supposed problems? : Ideal Observers are the ultimate standard of morality. Can survey the scene more dispassionately, more knowledgeably, and more rationally. They are better suited to inventing the moral law than we mere mortals are. 1. Even the core moral beliefs of individuals and societies may now be mistaken, as their views may fail to measure up to those of the ideal observers. 2. The views of individuals are societies will not be morally equivalent, since some will better match those of the observers. 3. The sincere endorsements of slavery and genocide will not automatically be morally authoritative, since such endorsements are almost always based in ignorance and irrationality. 4. Moral progress will now be possible, and will occur