female reproductive hormone estrogen. This reduced amount of estrogen causes the skin and connective tissue of the breast to become less hydrated, making it less elastic. With less elasticity, the breasts lose firmness and fullness and can develop a stretched and looser appearance. It’s not uncommon for an older woman to have a change in her cup size. Dense breast tissue is replaced by fatty tissue as the aging process continues. Menopause Most changes in the breast due to age occur around the time of menopause. Menopause is a natural process during which a woman ceases ovulation and menstruation, and after which she can no longer have children. This transition normally occurs between the ages of 45 and 55. A woman is officially in menopause once she has not had a period for 12 consecutive months. Other causes Women who have had their ovaries surgically removed can have changes in their breasts at any time due to the loss of hormones. Common breast changes Common changes that occur in the breast due to age include: * stretch marks
* Peau D’Orange (orange skin)-edema of breast due to blocked lymph drainage o Skin will appear thickened o Often seen first in the areola * Unilateral venous patterns-due to dilated superficial veins (may be due to increased blood flow to the malignancy) * Unilateral inversion of nipple that was previously everted * Retraction seen as flattening or pulling back of the nipple and areola * One nipple pointing in different direction for the other nipple * Unilateral discharge from a single duct of the nipple
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- pulse, Physical examination, intercostal space , 6512 Final