The First World War had ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey And there were

The first world war had ended with the defeat of

This preview shows page 56 - 59 out of 196 pages.

this, he felt, was to take up the Khilafat issue. The First World Warhad ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. And there wererumours that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on theOttoman emperor – the spiritual head of the Islamic world (theKhalifa). To defend the Khalifa’s temporal powers, a KhilafatCommittee was formed in Bombay in March 1919. A younggeneration of Muslim leaders like the brothers Muhammad Aliand Shaukat Ali, began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi aboutthe possibility of a united mass action on the issue. Gandhiji saw thisas an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unifiednational movement. At the Calcutta session of the Congress inSeptember 1920, he convinced other leaders of the need to starta non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat as well asfor swaraj.1.3 Why Non-cooperation?In his famous book Hind Swaraj(1909) Mahatma Gandhi declaredthat British rule was established in India with the cooperation ofFig. 3– General Dyer’s ‘crawling orders’ beingadministered by British soldiers, Amritsar,Punjab, 1919.
Image of page 56
57Nationalism in IndiaNew wordsBoycott – The refusal to deal and associate withpeople, or participate in activities, or buy anduse things; usually a form of protestIndians, and had survived only because of this cooperation. If Indiansrefused to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse within ayear, and swaraj would come.How could non-cooperation become a movement? Gandhijiproposed that the movement should unfold in stages. It should beginwith the surrender of titles that the government awarded, and aboycottof civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils,schools, and foreign goods. Then, in case the government usedrepression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.Through the summer of 1920 Mahatma Gandhi and Shaukat Alitoured extensively, mobilising popular support for the movement.Many within the Congress were, however, concerned about theproposals. They were reluctant to boycott the council electionsscheduled for November 1920, and they feared that the movementmight lead to popular violence. In the months between Septemberand December there was an intense tussle within the Congress. For awhile there seemed no meeting point between the supporters andthe opponents of the movement. Finally, at the Congress session atNagpur in December 1920, a compromise was worked out andthe Non-Cooperation programme was adopted.How did the movement unfold? Who participated in it? How diddifferent social groups conceive of the idea of Non-Cooperation?
Image of page 57
India and the Contemporary World582 Differing Strands within the MovementThe Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement began in January 1921.Various social groups participated in this movement, each with itsown specific aspiration. All of them responded to the call of Swaraj,but the term meant different things to different people.2.1 The Movement in the TownsThe movement started with middle-class participation in the cities.Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and
Image of page 58
Image of page 59

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 196 pages?

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes