Glencoe Health 2005.pdf

T he american cancer society recommends that females

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T he American Cancer Society recommends that females have pelvic exams by age 18 or when recom- mended by their physician. A pelvic exam is not painful. During a pelvic exam, a health care professional checks the shape, size, and position of pelvic organs and checks for any tumors or cysts. An examination of cells collected from the cervix, called a Pap test, can detect early changes in cells that may indicate a risk of cervical cancer. The health care pro- fessional also may test for certain sexually transmitted diseases. 477 Lesson 3 The Female Reproductive System HS_HEALTH_U05_C18_L3 12/8/03 12:36 PM Page 477
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478 Chapter 18 Endocrine and Reproductive Systems Communication: Asking Difficult Questions “Hello, Brooke,” says Dr. Morgan. “How are you? I see we’re doing a basic summer camp physical.” Brooke smiles and nods. She has been coming to Dr. Morgan for years and feels comfortable with her. “Before we begin,” Dr. Morgan continues, “do you have any questions for me? Everything okay?” “Well,” Brooke begins, “about a week before my period, I get depressed. It seems much worse than the everyday blues. Once my period starts, I’m okay.” “It’s important to ask about your concerns,” Dr. Morgan replies. “Many girls and women feel a little blue before their periods, but if your depression is severe, there are treatments we can try. Let’s talk more about your symptoms.” What Would You Do? How would you bring up a repro- ductive health topic with your parents or guardian or a health care professional? Use the following guidelines for effective communication to help you develop a dialogue. 1. Use “I” messages. 2. Speak in a respectful tone. 3. Make eye contact. 4. Show appropriate body language. 5. Express clear, organized ideas. STDs For more information on STDs and how they affect the female reproductive system, see Chapter 25, page 652. Problems Related to Infertility Infertility, the inability to conceive a child, can have several causes. Endometriosis. This painful, chronic disease occurs when tissue that lines the uterus migrates and grows in the ovaries, fallopian tubes, the uterus, or the lining of the pelvic cavity. Treatments include pain medications, hormone therapy, and surgery. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID is an infection of the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and the surrounding areas of the pelvis. It can damage a female’s reproductive organs. PID usually is caused by sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Sexually transmitted diseases are the most common causes of infertility and other disorders of the reproductive system. Often symptoms of STDs are not evident in females unless a medical examination is performed. Avoiding sexual contact until marriage is the one sure way to prevent STDs.
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