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Henry VIII challenged papal authority and questioned the Catholic Church’s ability to define Christian practice. They argued for a religious and political redistribution of power into the hands of Bible- and pamphlet-reading pastors and princes. The disruption triggered wars, persecutions and the so-called Counter-Reformation, the Catholic Church’s delayed but forceful response to the Protestants.35.Puritans:English religious group that sought to purify the Church of England; they all shared the conviction that the Church of England retained too many elements to the Catholicism in its religiousrituals and doctrines. Puritans saw elaborate church ceremonies, the rule that priests could not marry, and ornate church decorations as vestiges of “popery” Many rejected the catholic structures of religiousauthority descending from a pope or king to archbishops, bishops, andpriests. Puritans considered religious belief a complex and demandingmatter and urged believers to seek the truth by reading the bible and
listening to sermons by educated ministers, rather than devoting themselves to sacraments administered by priests and to what Puritans considered formulaic prayers. 36.Reconquista: The marriage of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain in 1469 had united the warring kingdoms of Argon and Castile. In 1492, they completed the Reconquista—the “reconquest”—of Spain from the Moors, African Muslims who had occupied part of the Iberian Peninsula for centuries. To ensure its religious unification, Ferdinand and Isabella ordered all Muslims and Jews to convert to Catholicism or leave the country. 37.Roanoke: the first English colony set up in 1587 under Sir Walter Raleigh with Queen Elizabeth on the throne. 90 men, 17 women, and 9 children for a total of 116 settlers were sent. Their fate remains a mystery, when a ship bearing supplies arrived in 1590, the sailors found the colony abandoned. It is thought that the inhabitants evidently having moved to live among the Indians. The word “Croaton,” the Indian name for a nearby island or tribe, had been carved on a tree. 38.Royal Governor:British rule in the colonies was enforced by the royal colonial governor, the government of the colonies represented an extension of the English government. Courts enforced the common law of England. The legislative body, which went by various names from colony to colony and through time, was elected bythe enfranchised voters. By 1750, most free white men could vote. In colonial New England there were annual town meetings, where each colonist had a voice.39.Royal Proclamation of 1763:Royal directive issued after the French and Indian War prohibiting settlement, surveys, and land grants west of the Appalachian Mountains; caused considerable resentment among the colonists that were hoping to move west.