attraction between the nucleus and electrons in the same shell Ionization

Attraction between the nucleus and electrons in the

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attraction between thenucleus and electrons in the same shellIonization energythe amount of energy which must be supplied to remove an electronINCREASESbecause the electron-to-be-removed is closer to the nucleusElectron affinitythe amount of energy which is released when an electron is added to an atomINCREASESbecause it becomes easier to add an electronElectronegativitythe relative ability of an atom tohold onto shared electronsINCREASESbecause of the growing attraction
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Ionic RadiusIONS OF A SINGLE ELEMENTLosing electrons makes an atom SMALLER.oA (positive) cation is SMALLER than a neutral atom.oThis is because the loss of electrons increases the proton:electron ratio and thus causes a growing attraction between the protons in the nucleus and the electrons surrounding them.Gaining electrons makes an atom LARGER.oA (negative) anion is LARGER than a neutral atom.oThis is because the gain of electrons decreases the proton:electron ratio and thus causesa weakening attraction between the protons in the nucleus and the electrons surrounding them.i.e. smallest S2+S S2-largestISOELECTRONIC IONSWhen two ions have the same number of electrons, you can determine which one is bigger by considering the number of protons.The ion with more protons is SMALLER.oThe ion with more protons has a larger proton:electron ratio and thus a stronger attraction between the protons in the nucleus and the electrons surrounding them.The ion with less protons is LARGER.oThe ion with fewer protons has a smaller proton:electron ratio and thus a weaker attraction between the protons in the nucleus and the electrons surrounding them.
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