For cattle there should be cattle sheds that will not be attacked by cold or

For cattle there should be cattle sheds that will not

This preview shows page 9 - 11 out of 33 pages.

For cattle there should be cattle sheds that will not be attacked by cold or heat; for tamed animals there should be double stalls, for winter and summer; for the other animals, which need to be kept inside the villa, there should be places partly roofed, partly open to the sky, fenced round with high walls, so that they can rest without being attacked by wild beasts, in the covered areas in winter and in the open areas in summer. But the cattle sheds should be spacious and designed so that no water can flow in and so that water from the sheds will flow away as quickly as possible; this will prevent the foundations of the walls and the hooves of the cattle from rotting. The ox-stalls will need to be ten feet wide, or at least nine feet, a width which will give room for the animal to lie down and for the oxherd to move around the animals. The mangers will not be too high for an ox or a pack animal to be able to eat while standing without difficulty. The quarters for the foreman should be built next to the door, so that he can see who goes in and out, and quarters for the manager over the door for the same reasons. He however should keep a watch on the foreman from close at hand, and next to both of them should be the barn, into which all farm equipment can be collected, and inside the barn a locked room where iron implements can be stored. For herdsmen and shepherds, rooms should be placed next to their herds and flocks, so that they can easily get out to look after them. However, they should all live as close to each other as possible, lest the diligence of the foreman, going around all the different places, be overstretched, and so that they might be witnesses of each other’s hard work or carelessness. GCSE Latin 9 of 33
Image of page 9
The storehouse is divided into rooms for oil, for presses, for wine, for boiling down must, hay lofts, chaff lofts, storerooms and granaries, so that those of them on the ground floor can accommodate liquid products for selling such as wine and oil, whilst dry products should be collected in lofts, such as grain, hay, leaves, chaff and other fodder. But granaries, as I have said, should be accessible by ladders and should be ventilated by small windows facing north. For that aspect is most cold and least wet, both of which help to preserve stored grain. The same principle applies on the ground floor to the placing of the wine room. This should be a long way from the baths, oven, manure and other dirty places which give off a foul smell, and equally from cisterns and springs, from which moisture is given off which spoils wine. 8 Columella: extracts from On Agriculture 1.6.18-24 Processing and storage of produce The press-rooms particularly and the oil rooms should be warm, because every liquid is made thin by heat and thickens when it is very cold. If oil freezes, which rarely happens, it goes bad. But it is natural heat that is needed, which is provided by the aspect and the climate, so there is no need for fire or flames, since the taste of oil is spoiled by smoke and soot. For this reason the press-
Image of page 10
Image of page 11

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture