considered and the meaning obtained therefrom In this connection I will quote

Considered and the meaning obtained therefrom in this

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considered and the meaning obtained therefrom. In this connection I will quote the words of Lord Greene in In re Bidie [1949] 1 Ch 121 129: "The first thing to be done, I think, in construing particular words in a section of an Act of Parliament is not to take those words in vacuo , so to speak, and attribute to them what is some times called their natural or ordinary meaning in the sense that their meaning is entirely independent of their context. The method of construing statutes that I myself prefer is not to take out particular words and attribute to them a sort of prima facie meaning which may have to be displaced or modified, it is to read the statute as a whole and ask myself the question. 'in this statute, in this context, relating to this subject-matter, what is the true meaning of that word?'" This, with respect, appears to me to have been the fallacy into which, as is apparent from his written submissions, the Attorney-General has fallen because he seeks amongst other things to interpret Article 144 as it stands alone although he does add to that interpretation the statement based upon Article 162 that the existing laws continue in force and in effect. This is made, I think, extremely clear when he relies upon Article 162(1) standing alone and without any reference to Clauses 4 and 5. Again his method of approach to the problem has led to an overlooking of the point with which I shall deal later in detail that the jurisdiction of the Police Service Commission being given by Article 140 (and we are concerned with the original Article and not with its recent amendment) was granted to the Commission extending to all members of the Police service and not to gazetted Police Officers only. In Article 144(1) it is the duty which is made subject to the provisions of any existing law and the provisions of the Constitution. In my opinion there is a distinction between the terms, "jurisdiction", and "duty", — a jurisdiction may be given with limits placed upon the manner in which the duties are to be performed. It would, in my opinion, be correct to say that an unlimited jurisdiction is given but in the exercise of that jurisdiction, that is to say, in the performance of the duties limitations are either placed on the duty or the manner in which that duty is to be performed. This distinction is I think made clear especially in dealing with constitutions by Griffith, C.J. in D'Emden v Pedder (1904) 1 CLR 91 when he said, "It is only necessary to mention the maxim quando lex aliquid concedit, concedere videtur et illud sine quo res ipsa valere non potest. In other words, where any power or control is expressly granted, there is included in the grant, to the full extent of the capacity of the grantor, and without special mention, every power and every control the denial of which would render the grant itself ineffective. This is, in truth, not a doctrine of any special system of law, but a statement of a necessary rule of construction of all grants of power, whether by unwritten constitution, formal written instrument, or
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