Law abiding tax paying citizens who in turn support

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law-abiding, tax-paying citizens,whoin turnsupportthe state,resulting in order, stabilityandproductivity.Religion: Society benefits from religion as a resultofthe teachingofvalues, normsandgroupconsensus_.This helps strengthen the integrationofsociety. Religious beliefsprovide guidelines. These guidelines establish general principlesandmoral beliefs forthe membersofsociety, providing stabilityandorderbyacting as moral glue. If thesereligious guidelihes arenotprovided, a divideiscreated between membersofsociety.Media:The_media disseminate information influencing publicopinionandoperateinthepublic interestbyreflectingtheinterestsofthe audience. Coveringmanydifferent storiesisanindication that the mediaunderstandsocietyanditswidediversityofculture.Power politics: Powerisusedto achieve collective goals, for example, materialprosperity. Authority,whichislinked to power,isusually accepted as legitimatebythemajority to help achieve collective goals. This links with the ideaofParsons,whobelieved in value consensus: everybody benefits from a variablesumofpower.11z0-~u::J0UJIL0>-00_JQu0(/)~(/)UJa:0UJI....a:UJ....a...;Iu
12z0~0::J0wlL0>-('J0...JQ00en1.3.3Critique_offunctionalismDespite allofthepoints listedaboveinsupportofthetheoryoffunctionalism, thereareanumberofcriticismsofthefunctionalistapproachtoeducation(Blackledge&Hunt, 1985).Thefirst criticism levelled at functionalism is thattheapproachencouragesthemaintenanceofthestatus quoandcomplacencyonthepartofsociety'smembers.Thesystemofclassorsocial stratificationandits highly differentiatedarrangementofrole,statusandrewardallocation arenotquestioned.Thefact that theeducationsystemgets allpeopletoacceptthestateofaffairs by instilling in learnerstheuniversallyacceptedvaluesofequalityofopportunity, meritocracyandachievementisseenas apositiveoutcome.Functionalismdoesnotencouragepeopletotakeanactive role inchangingtheir socialenvironmentbyasking questionsaboutwhosevaluesarebeingpromotedorwhoseinterests arebeingserved,evenwhenchangeofthis nature mightbenefit society. Instead, functionalismseesactive socialchangeas undesirablebecausethevariouspattsofsociety willcompensatenaturally foranyproblemsthat may arise(Blackledge&Hunt, 1985: 13).Thesecondcriticismoffunctionalismdepartsfromtheobservationthatmostmodernsocieties are multicultural.Thequestiontoconsiderishowit is possible fortheeducationsystemtoinculcate in all children a single (universal)setofvalues withwhichallmembersofthesociety agree. Is thisnota formofindoctrination?

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