Therefore, the term ‘peace support operations’ provides a doctrine that is relevant to the post-Cold War strategic environment. It is intended to define a modus operandi for military peacekeeping personnel in the future conduct of peacekeeping. In emerging doctrines of peacekeeping, peace enforcement is significantly re-defined to have a place within a broader framework of intervention options which, nevertheless, sees consent and peacebuilding (not victory) as end goals. In the latest British doctrine, for example, the vital division is between peace enforcement and war, with peacekeeping and peace enforcement operating on the correct side of the impartiality line, and with the objective of sustaining or restoring consent in the interests of the long-term demands of peacebuilding. However, what defines 3) Page Fortna, V. 2008, Does peacekeeping work? Shaping belligerents choices after civil war. Princeton University Press, p 17.A building damaged during Somalia’s civil war. [May 1993]. 01 May 1993. UN Photo #181013 by Milton Grant.
LESSON 7 |PEACEKEEPING AND CONfLICT RESOLUTION IN WAR ZONES152the essence of peace support here is the need to preserve, not so much consent as impartiality.It is evident from this approach that peace enforcement must contain two dimensions of activity—one that brings it close to a state of war (i.e., it must be prepared for combat and have an enforcement capability), while at the same time (in order not to breach the impartiality principle) it must be capable of building consent to limit the necessity for enforcement of compliance. If this is not done the prospect of being drawn into prolonged military enforcement actions is more likely, which increases the danger, of “crossing the Mogadishu line”, that is of taking sides and being drawn into the conflict directly (as the experience in Somalia demonstrated). It is clear that unless there is serious engagement with the consent-promoting dimension of peacekeeping and peace enforcement, which relates to the goals of conflict resolutionand post conflict peacebuilding, the new peacekeeping doctrine is fraught with danger of becoming embroiled in warfare.Consent-Promoting TechniquesTo reduce the chances of this undesirable escalation, UK and US doctrines recognize the importance of consent-promoting techniques in peacekeeping. These techniques are similar to Kofi Annan’s idea of building and strengthening positive inducements in peace support operations. The likelihood of using combat techniques will be reduced significantly if consent and cooperation techniques are adequately developed.The managing of consent—based on the principles of impartiality, legitimacy, mutual respect, minimum force, credibility, and transparency—is related to the techniques of promoting good communication, negotiation and mediation, and positive approaches to community relations through an active civil affairs programme, amply resourced to win “hearts and minds”. Current peace support doctrine4identifies six sets of techniques designed to maintain consent in conflict areas where peacekeepers are deployed.