program in 1985, recent work has demonstrated that the invasion of purple loosestrife into North American freshwater wetlands alters decomposition rates and nutrient cycling, leads to reductions in wetland plant diversity, reduces pollination and seed output of the native Lythrum alatum, and reduces habitat suitability for specialized wetland bird species such as black terns, least bitterns, pied-billed grebes, and marsh wrens. Conventional methods (physical, mechanical or chemical), have continuously failed to curb the spread of purple loosestrife or to provide satisfactory control. Although a number of generalist insect and bird species utilize purple loosestrife, wetland habitat specialists are excluded by encroachment of L. salicaria. We conclude that negative ecosystem impacts of purple loosestrife in North America justify control of the species and that detrimental effects of purple loosestrife on wetland systems and biota and the potential benefits of control outweigh potential risks associated with the introduction of biocontrol agents. Long-term experiments and monitoring programs that are in place will evaluate the impact of these insects on purple loosestrife, on wetland plant succession and other wetland biota.
66 116 Bhutan Bhutan is the last standing Buddhist Kingdom in the World and, until recently, has preserved much of their culture since the 17th century by avoiding globalization and staying isolated from the world. Internet, television, and western dress were banned from the country up until ten years ago. But over the past ten years globalization has begun to change in Bhutan, but things remain perfectly balanced. Bhutan is the only country in the world that has a ‘GNH.’ You may t hink GNH is just another statistically based term with no real- life application, but it refers to “Gross National Happiness.” The process of measuring GNH began when Bhutan opened up to globalization. It measures people’s quality of life, and makes sure that “material and spiritual development happen together.” Bhutan has done an amazing job of finding this balance. Bhutan has continually been (ranked) as the happiest country in all of Asia, and the eighth Happiest Country in the world according to Business Week. In 2007, Bhutan had the second fastest growing GDP in the world, at the same time as maintaining their environment and cultural identity. Bhutan is the only Buddhist Kingdom in the world; Mahayana Buddhism is the official religion of Bhutan. Over two thirds of the people are Buddhist, and Buddhism is supported by the government both politically and economically. The government gives subsidies to Buddhist monasteries, shrines, monks and other Buddhist programs. 117 Corn people Descendants of the Maya living in Mexico still sometimes refer to themselves as 'the corn people'.
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