Currently there are programmes with member states

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Currently there are programmes with Member States providing young people with technological training at CERN, so young professionals in CERN groups gain recognition for their stay as part of the CERN Education and Training programme. These programmes are supplemented with several TT-oriented courses on Intellectual Property Rights and aspects of TT, as well as certain aspects of entrepreneurship and policy. 9 The notion of ‘expert’ is relative and when used as a qualifier often a measure of some lack of competence in the third party. If one person is more knowledgeable than the other, the former is in a position to transfer his or her know-how to the latter as consultancy, and such actions deserve a return, whether financial or in kind. Therefore, identifying experts in an organization requires the identification of the credentials of personnel through as many independent sources of information as possible. Chapter 2 21
2.3.4 TT through shared learning Technology training is an integral part of the experimental research process. Young scientists contribute to the design and construction of experiments and thus become acquainted with leading physics instrumentation technologies. Other TT activities increasing the exchange of knowledge are the CERN Summer School of Computing, the annual CERN Accelerator School and the European School for Medical Physics, organized at both technical and scientific levels. CERN also offers technological training through its Accelerators and Computing schools, which are attended not only by researchers but also by engineers and applied physicists from industry. These schools bring together young researchers from various scientific disciplines and are combined with industrial exhibitions and seminars. The seminars are given by representatives of industry and present a direct platform for sharing technology and know-how between industry and research. The schools’ strong focus on practical applications therefore allows the transfer of techniques and know-how developed at CERN to the Member States. But TT also occurs in the other direction, by fostering contacts and technical collaboration between local and national industry and research. Table 2.4 shows the number of CERN fellows in applied physics and engineering (including computing), the number of unpaid associates in the same disciplines, and the number of apprentices and students between 1993 and 2003. 10 Table 2.4: Number of CERN fellows and unpaid associates in applied physics and engineering (including computing), number of apprentices and students at CERN [CHR02]. 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Fellows 140 111 127 153 200 219 215 203 225 215 221 Unpaid associates 598 679 573 596 180 155 175 203 229 322 310 Apprentices 26 28 29 30 30 30 31 31 31 33 34 Students 142 160 170 182 202 204 215 221 208 158 138 2.3.5 TT through purchasing Since the creation of CERN the classical way by which technologies have been transferred to industry is through purchasing. This transfer of know-how occurs Chapter 2 22
naturally from the interaction and continuous contact of CERN physicists, engineers

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