The year 1993 was characterized by the digitiza tion of the fixed phone network

The year 1993 was characterized by the digitiza tion

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The year 1993 was characterized by the digitiza- tion of the fixed phone network (471 optimally compressed petabytes). We estimate the year 1990 to be the turning point from analog to dig- ital supremacy. The Internet revolution began shortly after the year 2000. In only 7 years, the introduction of broadband Internet effectively mul- tiplied the world s telecommunication capacity by a factor of 29, from 2.2 optimally compressed exabytes in 2000 to 65 in 2007. The most wide- spread telecommunication technology was the mobile phone, with 3.4 billion devices in 2007 (versus 1.2 billion fixed-line phones and 0.6 bil- lion Internet subscriptions). Nevertheless, the fixed- line phone is still the solution of choice for voice communication (1.5% of the total). The mobile phone network became increasingly dominated by data traffic in 2007 (1.1% for mobile data versus 0.8% for mobile voice). When compared with broadcasting, telecom- munications makes up a modest but rapidly grow- ing part of the global communications landscape (3.3% of the sum in 2007, up from 0.07% in 1986). Although there are only 8% more broad- cast devices in the world than telecommunication equipment (6.66 billion versus 6.15 billion in 2007), the average broadcasting device commu- nicates 27 times more information per day than the average telecommunications gadget. This re- sult might be unexpected, especially considering the omnipresence of the Internet, but can be un- derstood when considering that an average Inter- net subscription effectively uses its full bandwidth for only around 9 min per day (during an average 1 hour and 36 min daily session). Computation. From a theoretical standpoint, a computation is the repeated transmission of information through space (communication) and time (storage), guided by an algorithmic pro- cedure ( 31 ). The problem is that the applied algorithmic procedure influences the overall per- formance of a computer, both in terms of hard- ware design and in terms of the contributions of software. As a result, the theoretical, methodo- logical, and statistical bases for our estimates for computation are less solid than the ones for stor- age and communication. In contrast to Shannon s bit ( 29 , 30 ), there is no generally accepted theory that provides us with an ultimate performance measure for computers. There are several ways to measure computational hardware performance. We chose MIPS as our hardware performance metric, which was imposed on us by the reality of available statistics. Regarding the contributions of software, it would theoretically be possible to normalize the resulting hardware capacity for algorithmic efficiency (such as measured with O-notation) ( 32 ). This would recognize the con- stant progress of algorithms, which continuously make more efficient use of existing hardware. However, the weighted contribution of each al- gorithm would require statistics on respective exe- cution intensities of diverse algorithms on different computational devices. We are not aware of such statistics. As a result of these limitations, our es- timates refer to the installed hardware capacity of computers.
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  • Summer '18
  • mit
  • Test, Data storage device, Computer data storage, Digital television, Exabytes

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