Negritude were Damas’ Pigments, Césaire’s Cahier, and Senghor’s Hosties noire including Chants d’ombre. The three poets eventually created the journal, L’Etudiant noire. The Journal L’Etudiant noire was a response to other African journals in Paris during that time. One of the journals Légitime défense was a West Indian Journal that Senghor and Césaire considered to be too assimilationist. The Revue du monde noir journal by the Nardal sisters’,was considered too bourgeois to even represent the French-speaking Africans experiences. Most importantly, L’Etudiant noire rode on the successes of the Nardal sisters and the West Indians’ Légitime défense that created an atmosphere for black intellectualism in Paris. Negritude was also inspired by the Harlem Renaissance which was co-authored by two great writers Claude McKay and Langston Hughes. The two writers laid the foundation for black expression. The works of these writers had profound influence on both Senghor, Damas and Césaire.
AFRICAN: BETWEEN TRADITION AND MODERNITY3Negritude filled the void to the estranged position of black history at the time. Negritude as a movement affirmed black identity across the world and told a story that was their own. To blacks living outside Africa and to those who were taken into slavery, it became a great part of their cultural identification and understanding. The works of art told of the pains and loss of Africa, the motherland. The works of Senghor were mainly on African traditionalism which