388 389 For instance the use of electronic devices has been linked to

388 389 for instance the use of electronic devices

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p.388-389). For instance, the use of electronic devices has been linked to psychological effects such as insomnia, physical effects and car accidents. The purpose of this paper is therefore to discuss the negative impacts of computers, tablets and mobile phones on health as well as provide recommendations to address the harmful effects of these electronic devices. 2. FINDINGS 2.1 Psychological health effects Excessive use of mobile phones, tablets and computers can lead to different psychological problems such as headache, lack of concentration, irritability/anger, anxiety and insomnia. According to Iva Lloyd (2015, p.41), the causes of headaches are associated with lack of sleep and eye strain which happen because of extended periods of time spent playing video games, especially among children and young people. A study conducted in 2005/2006 established that headache was strongly associated with accumulated time spent on TV viewing, video games and computer use (Iva Lloyd, 2015, p.41). Also, the use of tablets, mobile phones and computers might lead to irritability, anxiety and lack of concentration. According to a study conducted by Acharya, Acharya and Waghrey more than half of the subjects (50.8%) admitted that after they had used their phones for a prolonged duration, they got angry or irritated over the things told to them on the cell phones. Anger affects ones social aspects of life, and this is likely to impact negatively on their health. Further, when queried on lack of concentration as a result of mobile phone use, 47.4% of the participants responded positively. They admitted that they got disturbed by frequent messages and calls from people. (Acharya, Acharya and Waghrey, 2013). According to Suhag et al. (2016), lack of concentration can lead to accidents especially if one is performing a task that requires maximum concentration. Prolonged use of handheld electronics is also associated with increased risk of sleep disturbance (insomnia). According to Suhag et al. (2016), the artificial light from computers, tablets or cell phones hinders the pineal gland from producing a hormone (melatonin) that is responsible for stabilizing the 24-hour biological clock. Since the brain associates light with complete wakefulness, the light from mobile phones, therefore, disrupts the bio clock thus making an individual stay awake even when it is already time to sleep (Suhag et al., 2016).
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