Actuator torques and motion of links for simulation

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actuator torques and motion of links for simulation and design of control algorithms. The manipulator control maintains the dynamic response of the manipulator to obtain the desired performance, which directly depends on the accuracy of the dynamic model and efficiency of the control algorithm. The control problem requires specifying the control strategies to achieve the desired response and performance. Simulations of manipulator motion permits testing of control strategies, motion planning and performance studies without a physical prototype of the manipulator. ( Mc Clamroch, 1986.) The serial link manipulator represents a complex dynamic system, which can be modeled systematically using known physical laws of Lagrangian mechanics or Newtonian mechanics. Approaches such as Lagrange – Euler (LE) which are energy based and Newton – Euler (NE) which are force-balance based can be systematically applied to develop the manipulator EOM. The resulting EOM are a set of second order, coupled, non-linear differential equations, consisting of inertia loading and coupling reaction forces between joints. Both Lagrange –Euler and Newton-Euler formulation gives the relationship between the joint and end effector forces
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