Acting out dreams during REM sleep (no paralysis) -May hurt themselves or others-Most commonly occurs in middle-aged/elderly men-Cause: deterioration of brainstem structures that inhibit movement during REM4. Sleep Phase Disordersa)DSPS: Delayed sleep phase disorderSleep and wake much later than usualCan disrupt professional lifeb)ASPD: Advanced sleep phase disorderSleep and wake much earlier than usualCan disrupt social lifec)Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorderCycle is longer than 24 hoursFree-running (non-entrained) circadian rhythms 5. Narcolepsy-Irresistible sleep ‘attacks’-Fall immediately into REM sleep-Cataplexy:a medical condition in which strong emotion or laughter causes a person to suffer sudden physical collapse through remaining consciousness6. Sleep Apnea-Breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep -Can result in fatigue, high blood pressure, heart problems, complications with medicationsor in surgery, snoring, restless sleep, metabolic syndrome-Causes: obstructions straining upper airway, often caused by fat deposits; smoking; genetic factorsSleep, Learning, and Memory-Sleep assists with memory consolidation;
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Learning results in physical changes at synapsesTo remember what was learned, those changes need to become stable and durableLong term storage; transfer of stored memories from hippocampus to cortexAlso plays a role in weakening synaptic connections that are not needed-REM and slow-wave sleep (SWS) are especially importantREM and SWS deprivation have strong rebound effectsPeople perform better on tasks they’ve learned, and remember more if they’ve had a chance to get sleep in between (especially important)The same effects are NOT seen if the same time passes, but there is not sleep In one study, creative insights also occurred more after SWSTheories of Dreaming-Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud)The royal road to unconscious Reflect unconscious conflicts and wishesSymbolic—latent content (the underlying meaning of symbols within dreams)Other acceptable models include:-Problem Solving ModelDreams reflect our waking concernsThey help us to find creative solutions to our problems and resolve emotional issues -Cognitive ModelDreams are just thinking without the rich sensory input of waking life to direct itWhen awake, our brains construct ‘reasonable’ simulations of the worldSimilar activity explains similar brain wave patterns as when awake-Activation-Synthesis ModelDreams are a by-product of random activity in the brainstem pons during REM Activity involves neurons involved in eye movement, balance, posture, and transfer of information to sensory and motor areasBrain tries to make sense of the ransom activity from ponsPons sends random signals to many parts of cortex during sleepPROS AND CONSHypnosis: a procedure in which a practitioner suggests changes in the sensations, perceptions, thoughts, feelings, or behaviours of the participant.
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