Acting out dreams during rem sleep no paralysis may

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Acting out dreams during REM sleep (no paralysis) - May hurt themselves or others - Most commonly occurs in middle-aged/elderly men - Cause: deterioration of brainstem structures that inhibit movement during REM 4. Sleep Phase Disorders a) DSPS: Delayed sleep phase disorder Sleep and wake much later than usual Can disrupt professional life b) ASPD: Advanced sleep phase disorder Sleep and wake much earlier than usual Can disrupt social life c) Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder Cycle is longer than 24 hours Free-running (non-entrained) circadian rhythms 5. Narcolepsy - Irresistible sleep ‘attacks’ - Fall immediately into REM sleep - Cataplexy: a medical condition in which strong emotion or laughter causes a person to suffer sudden physical collapse through remaining consciousness 6. Sleep Apnea - Breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep - Can result in fatigue, high blood pressure, heart problems, complications with medications or in surgery, snoring, restless sleep, metabolic syndrome - Causes: obstructions straining upper airway, often caused by fat deposits; smoking; genetic factors Sleep, Learning, and Memory - Sleep assists with memory consolidation;
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Learning results in physical changes at synapses To remember what was learned, those changes need to become stable and durable Long term storage; transfer of stored memories from hippocampus to cortex Also plays a role in weakening synaptic connections that are not needed - REM and slow-wave sleep (SWS) are especially important REM and SWS deprivation have strong rebound effects People perform better on tasks they’ve learned, and remember more if they’ve had a chance to get sleep in between (especially important) The same effects are NOT seen if the same time passes, but there is not sleep In one study, creative insights also occurred more after SWS Theories of Dreaming - Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud) The royal road to unconscious Reflect unconscious conflicts and wishes Symbolic—latent content (the underlying meaning of symbols within dreams) Other acceptable models include: - Problem Solving Model Dreams reflect our waking concerns They help us to find creative solutions to our problems and resolve emotional issues - Cognitive Model Dreams are just thinking without the rich sensory input of waking life to direct it When awake, our brains construct ‘reasonable’ simulations of the world Similar activity explains similar brain wave patterns as when awake - Activation-Synthesis Model Dreams are a by-product of random activity in the brainstem pons during REM Activity involves neurons involved in eye movement, balance, posture, and transfer of information to sensory and motor areas Brain tries to make sense of the ransom activity from pons Pons sends random signals to many parts of cortex during sleep PROS AND CONS Hypnosis: a procedure in which a practitioner suggests changes in the sensations, perceptions, thoughts, feelings, or behaviours of the participant.
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