Flexibility is necessary because it is not always feasible and economical to

Flexibility is necessary because it is not always

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change. Flexibility is necessary because it is not always feasible and economical to build a new plant, every time a new firm is organised or the layout is changed. With minor alternations, the building should be able to accommodate different types of operations. 2. Product and equipment: The type of product that is to be manufactured, determines column-spacing, type of floor, ceiling, heating and air-conditioning. A product of a temporary nature may call for a less expensive building and that would be a product of a more permanent nature. Similarly, a heavy product demands a far more different building than a product which is light in weight. 3. Expansibility: Growth and expansion are natural to any manufacturing enterprises. They are the indicators of the prosperity of a business. The following factors should be borne in mind if the future expansion of the concern is to be provided for: ( i ) The area of the land which is to be acquired should be large enough to provide for the future expansion needs of the firm and accommodate current needs. ( ii ) The design of the building should be in a rectangular shape. Rectangular shapes facilitate expansion on any side. ( iii ) If vertical expansion is expected, strong foundations, supporters and columns must be provided. ( iv ) If horizontal expansion is expected, the side walls must be made non-load-bearing to provide for easy removal. 4. Employee facilities and service area: Employee facilities must find a proper place in the building design because they profoundly affect the morale, comfort and productivity. The building plan should include facilities for lunch rooms, cafeteria, water coolers, parking area and the like. The provision of some of these facilities is a legal requirement. Others make good working conditions possible. And a good working condition is good business. Service areas, such as the tool room, the supervisor’s office, the maintenance room, receiving and dispatching stations, the stock room and facilities for scrap disposal, should also be included in the building design. B. Types of Buildings Industrial buildings may be grouped under two types: 1. Single-storey buildings, 2. Multi-storey buildings The decision on choosing a suitable type for a particular firm depends on the manufacturing process and the area of land and the cost of construction. LIGHTING It is estimated that 80 per cent of the information required in doing job is perceived visually. Good visibility of the equipment, the product and the data involved in the work process is an essential factor in accelerating production, reducing the number of defective products, cutting down waste and preventing visual fatigue and headaches among the workers. It may also be added that both inadequate visibility and glare are frequently causes accidents.
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