Points Received: 0 of 0.5 Comments: Question 8 . Question : An infant has a continuous machine-type murmur best heard at the left upper sternal border throughout systole and diastole, as well as a bounding pulse and a thrill on palpation. These clinical findings are consistent with which congenital heart defect? Student Answer: Atrial septal defect (ASD) Ventricular septal defect (VSD) 0 -555930584 MultipleChoice 32 0 -555930583 MultipleChoice 29 -555930582 MultipleChoice 8 False 0 -555930582 MultipleChoice 8 0 -555930581 MultipleChoice 16 0 -555930580 MultipleChoice 15 0 -555930579 MultipleChoice 37
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) Atrioventricular canal (AVC) defect Instructor Explanation: If pulmonary vascular resistance has fallen, then infants with PDA will characteristically have a continuous machine-type murmur best heard at the left upper sternal border throughout systole and diastole. If the PDA is significant, then the infant also will have bounding pulses, an active precordium, a thrill on palpation, and signs and symptoms of pulmonary overcirculation. The presentations of the other congenital heart defects are not consistent with the described the symptoms. Points Received: 0 of 0.5 Comments: Question 9 . Question : When endothelia cells are injured, which alteration contributes to atherosclerosis? Student Answer: Toxic oxygen radicals that oxidize low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) are released. Cells are unable to make the normal amount of vasodilating cytokines. Cells produce an increased amount of antithrombotic cytokines. Cells develop hypersensitivity to homocysteine and lipids. Instructor Explanation: Injured endothelial cells become inflamed and cannot make normal amounts of antithrombotic and vasodilating cytokines. This selection is the only option that accurately identifies the factor that contributes to atherosclerosis. Points Received: 0 of 0.5 Comments: -555930578 MultipleChoice 39 False 0 -555930578 MultipleChoice 39
Question 11 . Question : Which cardiac pathologic condition contributes to ventricular remodeling? Student Answer: Left ventricular hypertrophy Right ventricular failure Myocardial ischemia Contractile dysfunction Instructor Explanation: Of the options available, myocardial ischemia contributes to inflammatory, immune, and neurohumoral changes that mediate a process called ventricular remodeling . Points Received: 0 of 0.5 Comments: Question 13 . Question : What is the effect of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) in atherosclerosis? Student Answer: LDLs cause smooth muscle proliferation. LDLs cause regression of atherosclerotic plaques. LDLs increase levels of inflammatory cytokines. LDLs direct macrophages to the site in the endothelium. -555930577 MultipleChoice 3 False 0 -555930577 MultipleChoice 3 0 -555930576 MultipleChoice 14 -555930575 MultipleChoice 27 False 0 -555930575 MultipleChoice 27 0 -555930574 MultipleChoice 41
Instructor Explanation: Oxidized LDLs are toxic to endothelial cells, cause smooth muscle proliferation, and activate further immune and inflammatory responses.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 42 pages?
- Fall '15