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programmers need only refer to the API code blocks in their individual application programs rather than including the entire code in the application itselfWhen your computer is turned on, it runs through a special boot process(or start-up process) to load the operating system into RAM. The term boot, from bootstrap(a small program used to start a larger program, alludes to the straps of leather, called bootstraps, that men used in former times to help them pull on theirbootsThe boot process:oThe basic input/output system (BIOS) is activated by powering on the CPUoThe BIOS checks that all attached devices are in place (called a power-on self-test, or POST)oThe operating system is loaded into RAMoConfiguration and customization settings are checkedWhen the boot process occurs on older computers you will hear sounds and see light illuminate. Although, I newer computers, a welcome screen appearsBIOS(basic input/output system) is a program that manages the data between theoperating system and all the input and output devices attached to the system, hence the nameBIOSis responsible for loading the OS from its permanent location on the hard drive into RAM. BIOS itself is stored on a special read-only memory(ROM – Is permanent!) chip on the motherboardThePOST consists of a test on the video card and video memory, a BIOS identification process , and a memory test to ensure that memory chips are working properlyCMOS(complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) is a special kind of memory that uses almost no powerCMOScontains information about the system’s memory, types of disk drives, andother essential input and output hardware componentsSystem filesare the main files of the OSThekernelis responsible for managing the processor and all other components of the computer system (the kernel = memory resident)The registrycontains all of the different configurations used by the OS and by other applications10
The verification of your login name and password at the end of the boot process isauthentication. This process blocks unauthorized users from entering the systemIf your computer freezes (1) press the Ctrl+Alt+Del keys at the same time to access the Task Manager or (2) press and hold down the Power buttonSometimes, if the boot process doesn’t work, uninstall any recently installed software or hardware and install it once the boot process is overSafe Modeis a special diagnostic mode designed for troubleshooting errors. When it is in Safe Mode, only the system’s essential devices- such as the mouse, keyboard, and monitor – functionWhile in safe mode, you can use the Device Manager, a feature in the operating system that lets you view and change the properties of all devices attached to yourcomputerLast Known Good Configuration(F8 during boot process) – if there is a problemduring your boot process, the operating system starts your computer using the