Of authoritarian states public engagement w political

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Totalitarian, extreme, stable ver. of authoritarian states public engagement w/ political process valued cultural institutions promoted state ideology state intervenes w/ public & private life, history Microsociological View of Politics o political prisoners, vocal opposition exiled/killed George Homans (The Human Group), functionalist ex. Nazi Germany & Stalinist Russia similar totalitarian features social exchange theory – Small groups rule themselves w/ informal control processes = “small-group politics” Totalitarian Germany rise b/c social & cultural factors, military aristocracy, religious establishment, corporations ex. ridicule, exclusion for group productivity violators supported history b/c communist scare; Hitler delivered group develop & protect stable patterns promises: jobs, nationalism, strong gov’t Critical Theory View of Politics o o Liberal-democratic, civilian gov’t, privacy, free speech & assembly analyzes class relation & political effects Direct Democracy – Greek city-states, citizens discussed, voted o C. Wright Mill’s “ruling elite theory” – small privilege group, on issues of importance, citizenry direct participation corporates, control liberal democratic societies, shared req. small population, ex. Athens interested/views Representative Democracy – legislature = elected representative John Porter & Wallace Clement agreed o Barrington Moore (Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy): meet, create polices expect of by electorate modernization process result diff. btwn diff. dominant class Constitutional Monarchy – head of state = monarch
parliamentary control originally Cooperative Commonwealth Federation formed Republic – head of state = president, elected/replaceable 1932, modeled European labor & social democratic party election methods varies btwn democracies socialist, farm, co-operative, labor group coalition Canada: by constituencies/ridings, each elect First elected Saskatchewan, first socialist N.A gov’t representative by majority vote = “first past the post”, Bloc Quebecois = Quebec separatists problem: exclude smaller parties, minority unrepresented Alberta Alliance = conservative, prominent in western Canada Proportional representation system: party votes totaled, Green Party = single issue: environmentally focus policies candidates selected from party list proportional w/ votes, o election process, less representative b/c simple plurality wins, ensure minority parties represented, minority gov’t doesn’t req. majority, usually >50% votes & >50% eligible voters common, rely on multi-party alliances minority, less visible parties penalized organize interests, lobby group advance certain causes ex. 2008 Green party 6.8% votes, no seats people’s political participation predicted sociologically w/ constituencies/ridings pop. size varies, votes diff. influences specified demographics, social, psychological variables depending on riding favors parties w/ rural appeal theory: electoral system = constant competition btwn 40% popular vote = majority win; else minority gov’t groups, parties, interests

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