Conclusion the pilot study has indicated that design

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in which these customs and habits exist. Conclusion The pilot study has indicated that design activity pervades organizations and that it is dispersed, interactive and frequently undertaken by people who would not recognize that their job involves design. For the time being we are naming this phenomenon silent design . During the major investigation, the authors will look at organizations with and without formal design policies and resources. Whilst most of the organizations already studied do have formal design policies, the initial study has found that silent design exists in these organizations as well as those that do not. In the organizations that do have a formal and declared design policy, it is interesting to note words and phrases used to describe aspects of maintaining them. The words discipline and control and the phrases top management commitment is vital and custodian of design were all used by most of them more than once. This suggests a degree of unease, not surprising in a relationship as ambiguous and unclear as the design and management relationship appears to be. It is likely that the 58 Traditions and Origins of Design Manageme nt increasing promotion of design by government and other agencies will persuade more organizations to take on board a policy toward design. In identifying the existence of silent design , the need for more knowledge on the interaction between covert and overt design activity is clearly vital. Without it one could postulate that a rush toward the introduction of design policies and practices might inadvertently demolish long-standing and successful silent design activities. The need for caution is clear. One must be careful not to hamper success in utilizing design to increase profits. Appendix The methodological approach for the pilot study originated from a working paper written for the general manager who had little background in design. Embodied in the paper is a conceptual framework with which to consider design activity within an organization. A simple matrix accompanied the paper and provided a device to explore the scope and depth of commitment to design within an organization. The matrix is illustrated in Table 3.1. Scope for design is allocated to the horizontal axis under three areas of activity: products, environments and information. Depth of commitment is on the vertical axis. The working paper describes the vertical axis as a guide to establishing the level of involvement at all design stages . Seven stages make up a scale which starts shallow with an auditing process where direct involvement is limited to evaluation, and finishing deep where an organization directly implements design (probably by manufacturing).
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