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This american political scientist stated that the

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This American political scientist stated that the most convenient and comprehensiveway to describe an act of communication was to answer the following questions: Who(says)What (to) Whom (in) What Channel (with) What Effect?This model is self speaking of the process of communication which consists offive elements namely communicator (who), message (says what), medium (in whichchannel), receiver (to whom) effect (with what effect).Lasswell conceived communication as a linear process which starts fromcommunicator and ends at receiver with some effect. The major missing elements ofthis basic model are feedback and context of communication. However, this model issaid to be highly helpful for organizing communication research as audience analysis,content analysis, control analysis, reception analysis and effect studies which arerespectively represented by communicator, message, medium, receiver and effect.Osgood and Shramm Model
CITY COLLEGE OF EL SALVADORLANGUAGE AND MEDIAPage 13Osgood and Schramm ModelOsgood and Schramm envisioned communication as a circular process which hasbeginning and or end. Hence their model is called Circular Model. In their view, sender andreceiver are interchangeable positions and though not specifically mentioned, feedback is anessential component of this model. There are three functions on each part of thecommunication circle. They are : encoding, decoding and interpreting. Both sender andreceiver are encoders, decoders and interpreters at the same time.EncoderWho does encoding or sends the messageDecoderWho receives the messageInterpreterPerson trying to understand (analyses, perceive) or interpret.Merits of this model are:1.Dynamic model- Shows how a situation can change2.It shows why redundancy is an essential part3.There is no separate sender and receiver, sender and receiver is the same person 4.Assume communication to be circular in nature5. Feedbackcentral feature.David Berlo’s Model of CommunicationDavid Berlo’s model of communication has four major parts : source (S), message(M),channel (C) and receiver (R). It is conceived as a linear model. This model is otherwise calledSMCR model denoting each elementBerlo’s Communication ModelUnlike other models SMCR model elaborates the sub sects of major componentsindicating the influence of external factors like culture, language, text and social system andsensory organs on communication process.Berlo’s model has the following demerits:a.No feedback / don’t know about the effect
CITY COLLEGE OF EL SALVADORLANGUAGE AND MEDIAPage 14b.Does not mention barriers to communicationc.No room for noised.Complex modele.It is a linear model of communicationf.Needs people to be on same level for communication to occur but not true in real lifeg.Main drawback of the model is that the model omits the usage of sixth sense as achannel which is actually a gift to the human beings (thinking, understanding,analyzing etc).

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Term
Spring
Professor
Tomlin
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