Chapter 5 Unit Test Questions from AP Review Sheet

Enter frederick jackson turner frontier thesis grand

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(Enter Frederick Jackson Turner – Frontier Thesis – Grand Theory – Davidson & Lytle Ch 5) Turner’s “safety valve” idea: “Safety valve” for overflow of discontented in the East b/c of social & economic conflict (Turner says yes – research says no) – Eastern city dwellers headed west to get free homesteads during depressions Western cities thrive : Cities like Denver & San Francisco served as major “safety valves” by providing – homes for failed farmers & busted miners who were in the West – so real “safety valve” was the western city – Ex. Denver & SF The American West & Water : In long run, group probably did the most to shape the West were – hydraulic engineers (irrigated) West – Federal gov’t gave the most aid to economic & social developments – Ex. Divert water – hydraulics Post-Civil War Agriculture & Farmers’ Problems (You laugh , but this was the DBQ a few years ago ): 1865-1900 – most US farmers – grew a single “cash crop” (perhaps tobacco or wheat – therefore dependent ) Root cause of US farmers’ problems after 1880 was – OVERPRODUCTION of agricultural goods! Last decade of 19 th century, volume of agricultural goods increased as prices for those goods decreased Ex. Cattle affected by overgrazing and bad winters while Argentina & other places produced more livestock or wheat prices drop due to overproduction in USA & other nations like Russia growing more wheat too – further causing declining prices Late 19 th century farmers believed their difficulties stemmed primarily from – deflated currency (Populism) Agricultural production rose in post-Civil War years – tenet farming (like sharecropping – whites & blacks) spread rapidly through the Midwest & South Farmers organize to stop abuses against them : Farmers were slow to organize & promote their interest b/c they – were by nature independent & individualistic {Bonanza Farming} First major farmers’ organization was – Patrons of Husbandry (The Grange/Grangers) Original purpose of the Grange was to – stimulate improvement through educational & social activities In several states, farmers helped pass “Granger Laws” which – regulated RR rates (from abuses – varying freight rates, free passes, rebates, etc…) Farmers’ Alliance formed – to take action to break the strangling grip of RRs (Ex. Frank Norris The Octopus – RRs in CA) Farmers’ Alliance especially weakened by - exclusion of black farmers Populist Party arose as direct successor of – Farmers’ Alliance Populist Party presidential candidate in 1892 was – James B. Weaver (Cleveland won) Populist leaders included: William “Coin” Harvey, Ignatius Donnelley, James B. Weaver, & Mary Elizabeth Lease, What about Eugene V. Debs? To win labor’s support, Populist Party – opposed use of court injunctions to force striking laborers back to work {Lots of influence on The Wizard of Oz } Late 19 th century Populists farmers held grievances against – RRs, state gov’ts, banks, grain-elevator operators,
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Christopher Reinemann
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