Apply punishment swiftly otherwise the connection may not be made between the

Apply punishment swiftly otherwise the connection may

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Apply punishment swiftly; otherwise the connection may not be made between the punished act and the punishment Use punishment just severe enough to be effective; overly harsh punishment can result in generalized fear, resentment, depression, low self-esteem, hostility, and aggression Make punishment consistent Explain the punishment Use non-corporal punishments Follow up with reinforcement for good behavior Negative Consequences of Reinforcement - Can undermine intrinsically enjoyable activities - Turning play into work: One group of preschoolers promised a prize for drawing with felt-tipped pens Behavior temporarily increased After prize delivered, the rewarded group spent less time drawing Chapter 10: Memory What is Memory? - The process of encoding, storing, and retrieving experiences and information - Encoding: getting information in the brain - Storage: keeping info in the brain - Retrieval: using the info from the brain - In most information processing models, storage takes place in three interacting systems 1. Sensory memory (attention to short term) 2. Short term memory (rehearsal) (transfers to long term; retrieves from long term) 3. Long term memory (transfer from short term; short term retrieves from) *three-box model of memory - some scientists prefer non-sequential connectionist models (parallel distributed processing, PDP) Sensory Memory (aka Sensory Register) - Stores sensory information in its original form for very brief periods (vanishing trace) Visual: about half a second maximum (iconic memory) Auditory: up to 2 seconds (echoic memory) - Gives us time to evaluate its importance/interest Short-Term Memory (STM) - Short duration: a few seconds (max about 20 seconds) Limited capacity: the magic number is seven items of new information, plus or minus two (memory span)
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Working Memory - Short term storage is just one aspect of ‘working memory’ - Includes: operating over a few seconds, temporary storage, manipulating information, focusing attention - Associated with scores on cognitive tests, and on real-life tasks requiring attention, learning, problem solving, etc. Chunking - Combining items into familiar or meaningful patterned or units (used to increase the capacity or short-term memory) Maintenance Rehearsal - Repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the material to be remembered - Used to increase the duration of short-term memory Long-Term Memory - Where we store all experiences and knowledge - Capacity: unlimited - Duration: unlimited, but distortion can occur - Declarative Memory(what): Factual knowledge: names, dates, events, ideas; anything you can talk about or describe - Non-Declarative/Procedural Memory(how): Motor skills/actions: ride a bike, ski, play violin; difficult to verbalize or describe Declarative Memory - Can be divided into two parts: Semantic Memory(facts): General factual knowledge about the world Capital of Canada Letters of the alphabet Peoples names Episodic Memory(events): Personal experiences and events First kiss A great concert you attended
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