{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

05.Bacterial Genetics

They can also go from one bacterium to another

Info icon This preview shows pages 4–7. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
themselves out of the Genome. They can also go from one Bacterium to another Bacterium and do the same Thing over there, too. Being a Plasmid is sounds like a whole lot of Fun. • Many Plasmids can Replicate Autonomously - Such Plasmids have their own Origin of Replication (ori) Plasmid Replication uses Host Cell DNA Replication Machinery and some Plasmid-Coded Enzymes. Replication of Plasmids -- just like Replication of the Bacterial Chromosome -- is Bidirectional from an Origin. • Plasmids vary considerably in Size - pBR 322 is ~4 Kbp This guy is an extremely useful Plasmid that ʼ s a Staple in Biotechnology. It is named after Bolivar and Rodrigues; the latter currently teaches at UC-Davis. - F Factors are about 95 Kbp F Factors probably have more Fun than most other Plasmids (which is saying quite a lot). And we ʼ ll be saying quite a lot about F Factors in a few Pages. • Other Important Plasmids - Resistance Factors (R Factors) • Code for Antibiotic Resistance - Virulence Plasmids • Code for Antibiotic Resistance and Toxins
Image of page 4

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Bacterial Genetics Page 5 Bacteriophage (G= bacteria eater) Bacteriophage (usually shortened to Phage) are Biological Entities containing either DNA or RNA (but never both) that are Obligate Intracellular Parasites of Bacteria • Phage are Viruses that infect Bacteria Viruses have been described as a Piece of Bad News wrapped-up in Protein. They are the Ultimate Parasites: Inert Particles outside of the Host; Biochemical and Genetic Choreographers inside the Host. • Phage are composed of - - Genome (L= gene set) • The Genome can be DNA or RNA It can also be either Single-Stranded or Double-Stranded. - Capsid (L= box) • The Protein Shell that protects the Genome The Capsids for Phage tend to be amaziatingly Complex -- much more so than that of the typical Plant or Animal Virus -- because a Phage has to penetrate a Bacterium ʼ s Rigid Cell Wall before it can infect the Bacterium. • Bacteriophage Replication - Phage attaches to Host Bacterium and injects its Genome - Phage Nucleic Acid commandeers Bacterial Transcription, Translation and Replication Machinery • Bacterium is “retooled” to -- - Transcribe Phage Nucleic Acid into Phage mRNA - Translate Phage mRNA into Phage Proteins - Replicate Phage Nucleic Acid - Phage Proteins assemble into Capsids - Phage Nucleic Acid is inserted into Capsids - Phage lyses Host Bacterium to release progeny (L= descendent) Phage to attack other Bacteria
Image of page 5
Bacterial Genetics Page 6 Bacterial Gene Transfer (A) Transformation • Transformation is the Uptake of free DNA and the Incorporation of this DNA into the Genome - The Ability of a Bacterium to be transformed is termed Competence Artificial Transformation (what ʼ s done in Cell and Molecular Labs) • Some Bacteria can be induced to become Artificially Competent and undergo Transformation after some specific Treatment E. coli can be made Artificially Competent by Pretreatment Overnight at 5°C in high Concentrations of Calcium.
Image of page 6

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 7
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern