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of the letter you are directly looking at, as well as the letters about 15 positions to the right of that central letter oNotice that this perceptual span for English is definitely lopsided. After all, when we read English, we are looking for reading cues in the text that lies to the right, and these cues provide some general information Ex.the material in the extreme right side of the perceptual span is useful for noticing thewhite spaces between words, because these spaces provide information about word length. However, we usually cannot actually identify a word that lies more than 8 spaces to the right of the fixation point oOther research has demonstrated that saccadic eye movements show several predictable patterns. Ex.when the eye jumps forward in a saccadic movement, it usually moves toward the center of aword, rather than to a blank space between words or between sentences.
oThe eye also jumps past short words, words that appear frequently in a language, and words that are highly predictable in a sentence In contrast, the size of the saccadic movement is small if the next word in a sentence is misspelled or if it is unusual oAll these strategies make sense, because a large saccadic movement would not be useful if the material is challenging. oGood readers differ from poor readers with respect to their saccadic eye movements. Figure 3.1 shows how two such readers might differ when reading the same sentence. Good readers make larger jumps. They are also less likely to make regressions, by moving their eyes backward to earlier material inthe sentence. People often make regressions when they realize that they have not understood the passage they are reading The good reader also has shorter pauses before moving onward In summary, the research shows that a wide variety of cognitive factors have an important influence on the pattern and speed of our saccadic eye movements oSaccadic eye movements clearly help us become more active, flexible readers5.Describe the two attentional networksthat have been identified by neuroscience researchers, and explain the role they play in attentional phenomenon.