2019 Everything starts with the 1 º structure F 31 Structure determines

2019 everything starts with the 1 º structure f 31

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© 2019 Everything starts with the 1 º structure F-31 “Structure determines function” Everything starts from the primary structure = ___________ Gene sequence determines amino acid sequence, which determines secondary structure, which then determines tertiary structure, which then determines quaternary structure Primary structure = ____________________
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© 2019 2 º Structure types 1: Helices F-32 Hydrogen bonding between carbonyl _________ atoms and _________ atoms in the __________ of amino acids near each other (within 3-4 residues) in the linear sequence of the protein.
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© 2019 2 º Structure types 2: Sheets F-32 Hydrogen bonding between carbonyl _________ atoms and _________ atoms in the __________ of amino acids usually far from each other in the linear sequence of the protein.
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© 2019 3 º Structure - Different secondary structure elements are _______ into the 3D shape of a protein - Mostly held together by interactions between R-groups: F-33 H-bonds & Ionic bonds Van der Waals interactions Covalent (disulfide) bonds formed between cysteine residues
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© 2019 Examples: common types of 4º structure Homotrimer Heterotrimer F-34 Homotrimer Subunit = ______ polypeptide chain Homo = all __________ the same Hetero = more than one type of __________ Di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, etc. = ____________ Some proteins form VERY large assemblies of subunits: e.g. , muscle, collagen, hair
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© 2019 To perform its function of carrying oxygen in the blood, 4 polypeptide chains (2 with primary structure and 2 with primary structure β) come together to form a ________________. F-34 2 subunits have same primary structure Example 1 : Hemoglobin 2 β subunits have same primary structure Primary structure of subunits DIFFERS from primary structure of β subunits
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© 2019 Example 2: hexokinase (1 st rxn in glycolysis) Ribbon diagram showing tertiary structure of 1 subunit; ____________ coloured according to the rainbow from amino end (blue) to carboxyl end (red) Two subunits come together to form a __________.
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© 2019 Hexokinase movie Movie shows how two hexokinase subunits combine to form a homodimer, which then changes 3D shape or conformation when ATP and glucose bind.
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