How to evolve more credible, orderly and consistent migration policies? •Learn from good practices and guest worker schemes in other countries •Follow the spirit of international labour standards and recommendations •Respect for basic human rights •Greater regional cooperation and transparent regional consultative processes •Trade unions should clarify their position and lobby governments .
41Regional and bilateralcooperation in this field is lacking How to promote bilateral and regional cooperation? •Periodic consultations among sending and receiving countries •Use existing fora such as, ASEAN, SAARC and APEC and ASEM to address these issues •Strengthen existing initiatives such as Bangkok Declaration, APC and Manila Processes, Migration Policy and law courses for Asia and the pacific •Promote tripartite consultations involving workers’ and employers’ organizations •Promote networking among unions, employers and NGOs in sending and receiving countries •For countries especially affected, initiate bilateral discussions; -Thailand and Myanmar - Malaysia and Indonesia Trafficking of women and children across borders has increased with serious human rights violations. How to identify trafficking channels and networks and effectively regulate their operations? How to offer relief and rehabilitation to victims of trafficking? •Gathering and sharing of information among countries •Ratification of ILO Convention of Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (no.182) and the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its relevant Protocols •Stiff measures against traffickers as accepted in the Bangkok Declaration •Build partnerships and alliances among concerned government and non-govt. agencies active in the field •Disseminate research findings including ILO research on the issue. •Implement technical cooperation projects for dealing with trafficking issues: ILO-IPEC Mekong sub-region project Trade Unions play only a limited role in assisting and protecting migrant workers. How can trade unions play a more active role in the protecting and supporting migrant workers, especially vulnerable groups. •Mainstream migrant worker issues in the agenda of national, regional nd international trade union activities. •Promote networking between origin- and host-country unions •Drive to recruit migrant workers as members •Dialogue with migrant worker associations and NGOs helping migrants. •Lobby for more support from the employers and governments to union activities in this area •Monitor activities of recruitment agents, other intermediaries and traffickers with a view to preventing and exposing abuses and malpractices •Lobby for changes in national legislation to provide protection to migrant workers.
42Table 4. Officially reported Labour outflows by destination Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand Table 4a. Thailand (percentages) Destination 1986 1990 1995 1998 Middle East 84.4 43.5 9.9 9.3 East Asia 1.9 19.4 66.5 64.4 Western Countries 3.9 9.7 0.8 3.1 Total % 100 100 100 100 Total number 85,700 63,200 202,300 191,735 Source: based on data from Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, Thailand.