24. Explain why food normally does not go to your nasal cavity or to your lungs when you swallow – even if you are lying down. 25. Damage to the parasympathetic nervous system will most likely have what effect on digestion? 26. Why is peristalsis of large intestine important and what will happen if it is abnormally decreased or increased? 27. What is a permanent dentition and deciduous dentition? How many teeth are present in each? 28. What are sphincters and what role do they play? Name main sphincters in GI tract and indicate their locations. 29. What is the function of mesentery? 30. Pathologies of the digestive system Chapter 25 - Metabolism Definitions of metabolism, catabolism and anabolism. Coupled reactions, the role of ATP. Oxidation-reduction reactions, transfer of electrons, role of NAD+ and FAD. Carbohydrate metabolism: digestion of carbohydrates. Glucose catabolism: Glycolysis – know location (cytoplasm) and steps. Formation of acetyl-CoA and its transfer to mitochondria. Krebs cycle – know location (mitochondrial matrix) and steps. Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation – location (mitochondrial inner membrane) and understand the principle. Fermentation – in the absence of oxygen, formation of lactic acid. Know how many ATPs are formed at each step. How many ATPs can be made from one glucose molecule. Carbohydrate storage: glycogenesis and glycogenolysis – understand the principle and know the locations for glycogen storage. Gluconeogenesis – formation of glucose from non-carbohydrate molecules. Lipid metabolism. Types of lipids and their functions.
Lipid digestion, absorption and transport. Lipoproteins: know names(chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL) and their components. Lipid catabolism : Oxidation of fatty acids (beta-oxidation) and glycerol (glycolysis). Storage of triglycerides in adipose tissue. Lipolysis and lipogenesis. Protein metabolism. Functions of proteins. Protein digestion and absorption. Catabolism. Deamination of amino acids in liver. Anabolism: resynthesize proteins from amino acids. Essential vs. non-essential amino acids: definition and number. Regulation of metabolism. Absorptive and post-absorptive states. How long each lasts. Regulation of body temperature and energy use. Basal metabolic rate. Practice Questions