24.Potosí- Located in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America.25.Viceroyalty of Peru- a Spanish colonial administrative district that originally contained most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima.26.Roanoke Colony- called the "Lost Colony.", the first English colony was founded by Sir Walter Raleigh, unsuccessful ships disappeared or turned back27.Plymouth Colony- Colony founded by the Separatist Pilgrims who came over on the Mayflower. Located in New England.28.Massachusetts Bay Colony- A colony of primarily puritans (Calvinists). It was not a colony dedicated to religious freedom. City upon a hill, boston area.29.Iroquois Confederation- An alliance of five northeastern Amerindian peoples (six after 1722) that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English, the Confederacy dominated the area from western New England to the Great Lakes.30.New France- Samuel de Champlain founded the colony of New France at Quebec, on the banks of the St. Lawrence River, in 1608.-provided ready access to Amerindian trade routes, but it also compelled French settlers to take sides in the region's ongoing warfareIndividuals / People:31.Father Miguel de Hidalgo- Mexican priest who established independence movement among American Indians and mestizos in 1810; despite early victories, was captured and executed32.Bartolomé de Las Casas- First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life
to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor33.Sir Humphrey Gilbert- English navigator who in 1583 established in Newfoundland the first English colony in North America, but decided to move to a better area and was killed in a storm on his way home34.Sir Walter Raleigh- English courtier, navigator, colonizer, and writer. A favorite of Elizabeth I, he introduced tobacco and the potato to Europe. Convicted of treason by James I, he was released for another expedition to Guiana and executed after its failure.35.Pilgrims- Group of English Protestant dissenters (non-conformist) who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1620 to seek religious freedom after having lived briefly in the Netherlands.36.Puritans- English protestant dissenters (non-conformist) who believed that God predestined soulsto heaven or hell before birth. They founded the Massachusetts Bay colony in 1629.37.Quakers- English dissenters (non-conformist) who broke from Church of England, preach a doctrine of pacifism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania38.William Penn- an English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religioustolerance.