Central nucleus CoA o Sensory info from basolateral amygdala projects to wide

Central nucleus coa o sensory info from basolateral

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Central nucleus (CoA)oSensory info from basolateral amygdala  projects to wide variety of regions in brainoInvolved in emotional responses (esp. aversive)Conditioned Emotional Response-Also known as cued-fear conditioning.-Mediated by central nucleus of the amygdala (CoA).Serotonin and Aggression-AggressionoConflict resolutionRules:Conducted primarily by displaysEscalation occurs graduallyClear cut termination signals-ViolenceoIntense physical interaction with an intent to do harm.-Stronger serotonergic tone seems to result in less aggression-5-HIAA correlated with impulsivity and aggressionoLow 5-HIAA (indicating low serotonin levels) associated with risk taking behavioroIn mice, social isolation decreases serotonin releaseIsolated males are more aggressiveTame foxes have higher serotonin levels in the brain.-Serotonin and Aggression in HumansoVentromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)Inhibition of emotional behavior Receives strong serotonergic input
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oLower serotonin may increase impulsivityViolence may be related to inability to inhibit attack behaviorChapter 11 Ingestive Behavior-Body fluid homeostasis and thirstoOsmotic (osmometric) thirstoHypovolemic (volumetric) thirstA satiety mechanism:Stops hunger or thirst due to adequate levels of nutrients or wateroFluid Compartments:The fluid portion of the body can be divided into several compartments.Water can move between compartments via osmosis.oPhysiologic Concentration of SaltPhysiologic concentration of salt = 0.9% or 154 mMAn isotonic solution of salt = 0.9%, a hypotonic one is < 0.9%, and a hypertonic one is > 0.9%.Thirst-How do we regulate the amount of water in the body?oThe simple answers:Get rid of it, if we have too much.Drink more, if we don’t have enough.oDouble Depletion Hypothesis:There are two types of thirst: (1) Osmotic (normovolemic and hypertonic) o Results from the dehydration of the intracellular fluid due to the extracellular fluid becoming hypertonic. o Blood volume does not change. (2) Volemic (hypovolemic and isotonic) o Results from a loss of both water and solute. o Blood volume decreases but the extracellular fluid is still isotonic. - Osmoreceptors
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Posterior Pituitary - The neural peptides it can release are: o Oxytocin (OT) o Vasopressin (AVP) AKA antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Changes the permeability of the kidney tubule so water can be reabsorbed A pressor agent (causes vasoconstriction) Release of vasopressin is parallel to drinking. Diabetes Insipidus - Symptoms include excessive urination, low blood pressure (hypotension) and excessive drinking. o Caused by lack of vasopressin o Note that the common form of diabetes is called diabetes mellitus - In both types there is excessive drinking and urination, but in mellitus there’s also excessive eating.
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