effectiveness of bees by making them move more from one plant to another as they avoid potential predators and competitors (Carvalheiro et al. 2011). Thus, biodiversity in general contributes to the pollination service provided directly by bees, which in turn provides us with food security. Unfortunately, pollinators are under enormous pressures today and several species are even threatened with extinction. A 2016 assessment by the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services stressed the key relationship between pollinators and 75% of the world’s food crops at an annual value in the region of US$235-$577 billion. Returning to Module 3, biodiversity is also linked with three prominent dimensions of human well-being: • Material dimension : people across the world are fed by biodiversity and use the material components of biodiversity in a multitude of ways to meet their daily needs in terms of income (such as wood for construction), food (pollination services, hunting, trapping), physical health (pharmaceutical products), etc. The CBD now has a cross-cutting programme on biodiversity and health in which well-being is recognized as a critical component. • Relational dimension : biodiversity provides opportunities for social interaction (such as the social and cultural importance of baobab trees) and the relationships involved in the generation and maintenance of cultural identities (such as the importance of woodland caribou to Cree communities in northern Quebec). • Subjective dimension : biodiversity is often linked to cultural identity. For example, some Maori communities of New Zealand define themselves in terms of the inshore aquatic species that are the most common or most valued in their area. These species are termed ‘cultural keystone species’ (McCarthy et a. 2014). The interactions between species (food webs, competitive interactions, etc.) form complex adaptive systems, as do the ecosystem services and functions provided by the various living components of the system. This leads to competing and complimentary uses and interactions among stakeholders, as seen in community-based forest management in Honduras, where trees are used for logging, resin-tapping, firewood, charcoal, handicrafts, and other purposes (Nygren 2005). Indeed, different components of biodiversity may be important in different ways for different reasons. For example, lions are important to African park managers because tourists pay money to see them; they bring revenue and jobs, adding to the local economy. They are also important spiritually and culturally, as symbols of strength and beauty. They also play important roles in the ecosystem, as top predators capable of controlling populations of ungulates, picking off the weak, and thus regulating the consumption of local flora. Thus, lions may be important to us, but also to ecosystems, and thus to other components of biodiversity. If ungulate populations were not controlled, the biomass that they eat would be drastically reduced, harming other organisms (insects, birds, etc.) that depend on them. It is possible that without lions, ecosystems would
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