Chapter 4Know details of cell adaptations and be able to give examples or recognize specific clinical situations concerning cellular responses involving hypertrophy, atrophy, and the “plasias”. Be able to recognize
factors that may result in cell changes and whether they are physiologic, pathogenic, compensatory, or adaptive.Have a working knowledge of cell injuries, their mechanisms, and causes. Be able to recognize clinical situations that may result in cell injury and the pathophysiology involved in precisely what leads to injury. (calcium, cell degeneration, reperfusion, reactive oxygen species, etc)Know the different types of necrosis, their mechanisms, and where they would most likely be found bothin the body, and the clinical causes (hypoxia, disease, etc)Understand the different types of gangrene and the pathophysiologic causes (circulatory, infectious organisms)Understand apoptosis and the role of apoptosis in the overall welfare of the organism.Chapter 5Know the distribution of fluid in the body.Know the approximate proportion of water found throughout life (from infancy to old age)Have a working knowledge of “capillary circulation”, including capillary and tissue oncotic and hydrostaticpressures. Be able to identify clinical situations that may lead to changes in the movement of water to or from capillaries and tissues.Have a working knowledge of edema including clinical circumstances that may lead to the development of edema and the physiology involved.Understand pitting vs non-pitting edemaKnow the relationships between water and sodium, and how water and sodium levels are controlled physiologically. Know the pathophysiology of water excess.Know the ranges of serum sodium and understand the general clinical effects/manifestations of hyper- and hyponatremia, including how changes in sodium have a pathophysiologic impact.Know the ranges of serum potassium and understand the general clinical effects/manifestations of hyper- and hypokalemia, including how changes in potassium have a pathophysiologic impact.Know the general relationship between serum pH and potassium levels (hydrogen displaces potassium incells)Understand the role of calcium in pathophysiology, the basic effects of hypo- and hypercalcemia, and thegeneral ways in which calcium levels are controlled.