Q4 in the year following an eight cent increase in

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----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - Q4: In the year following an eight-cent increase in the federal tax on a pack of cigarettes, sales of cigarettes fell ten percent. In contrast, in the year prior to the tax increase, sales had fallen one percent. The volume of cigarette sales is therefore strongly related to the after-tax price of a pack of cigarettes. The argument above requires which of following assumptions? A. During the year following the tax increase, the pretax price of a pack of cigarettes did not increase by as much as it had during the year prior to the tax increase. B. The one percent fall in cigarette sales in the year prior to tax increase was due to a smaller tax increase. C. The pretax price of a pack of cigarettes gradually decreased throughout the year before and the year after the tax increase. D. For the year following the tax increase, the pretax price of a pack of cigarettes was not eight or more cents lower than it had been the previous year. E. As the after-tax price of a pack of cigarettes rises, the pretax price also rises. Answer: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - 13
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Q5 to Q7: In American Genesis , which covers the century of technological innovation in the United States beginning in 1876, Line Thomas Hughes assigns special promi- (5) nence to Thomas Edison as archetype of the independent nineteenth-century inventor. However, Hughes virtually ignores Edison’s famous contem- porary and notorious adversary in (10) the field of electric light and power, George Westinghouse. This com- parative neglect of Westinghouse is consistent with other recent historians’ works, although it marks an intriguing (15) departure from the prevailing view during the inventors’ lifetimes (and for decades afterward) of Edison and Westinghouse as the two “pioneer innovators” of the electrical industry. (20) My recent reevaluation of Westing- house, facilitated by materials found in railroad archives, suggests that while Westinghouse and Edison shared important traits as inventors, they (25) differed markedly in their approach to the business aspects of innovation. For Edison as an inventor, novelty was always paramount: the overriding goal of the business of innovation was (30) simply to generate funding for new inventions. Edison therefore undertook just enough sales, product development, and manufacturing to accomplish this. Westinghouse, however, shared the (35) attitudes of the railroads and other industries for whom he developed innovations: product development, standardization, system, and order were top priorities. Westinghouse (40) thus better exemplifies the systematic approach to technological development that would become a hallmark of modern corporate research and development. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q5: 14
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The primary purpose of the passage is to --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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