Digital integrated circuits 2nd edprentice hall 2003

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“Digital Integrated Circuits” , 2nd ed.Prentice Hall, 2003, ISBN 0-13-120764-4. N. Waste and K. Eshraghian, “Principles of CMOS VLSI Design” , Addison-Wesley, 1993. 5. Low Power N-bit Radix-4 Booth Multiplier (N >= 32) Normal array multipliers compute partial products in radix-2 manner. This leads to larger number of partial products. You can decrease the number of partial products by increasing the radix of your multiplication. This leads to fewer partial products and hence smaller and faster CSA array. Radix-4 will have N/2 partial products and hence each partial product will either be 0,1,2,3 times the multiplicand. Multiplication by 3 is hard. To solve this Booth encoding was used which removes the complex multiplication of 3 of the multiplicand. In this project you will have design and layout a 16 or more bit wide booth multiplier. Now, if you have a 16 bit multiplier, you will have 32 input pads and 32 output pads. This accounts to 64 pads which is too much. Because of the limited amount of pads a bit serial-to-parallel input/output interface (SPI) must be used to feed input vectors to the adder and get back the output. The inputs are feed to the circuit in a bit-serial data stream and are converted into N-bit vectors by the serial to parallel converters. Outputs of the multiplier are gotten through a parallel-to-serial interface. Use low power techniques to minimize power. J.M. Rabaey, A. Chandrakasan, and B. Nikolic., “Digital Integrated Circuits” , 2nd ed.Prentice Hall,
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2003, ISBN 0-13-120764-4. N. Waste and K. Eshraghian, “Principles of CMOS VLSI Design” , Addison-Wesley, 1993. 6. ECoG processor Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) convert brain signals into outputs that communicate a user's intent. The electrocorticographic activity (ECoG) recorded from the cortical surface can serve as a modality for non-invasive BCI method. The sensorimotor rhythms comprise three major frequency bands - Mu(8-12Hz), Beta(18-26Hz) and Gamma(30-200Hz). The changes in these rhythm amplitudes correspond to human's actions or imagined actions. The objective is to develop a processor that can be used to estimate the energy in each frequency band over a specified time period. Thus, in order to estimate the power spectrum of the rhythm frequency, bandpass filters and FFTs(>=8-points) will be required. The snapshot of the power spectrum values should be available every 0.2 second. Ultra-low power consumption (~1uW) is utmost important for the bio-implantable circuits. See references for FFT Processor E. C. Leuthardt, G. Schalk, J. R. Wolpaw, J. G. Ojemann, and D. W. Moran, " A brain-computer interface using electrocorticographic signals in humans," J. Neural Eng., vol.1, no.2, pp. 63-71, 2004. K. J. Miller, E. C. Leuthardt, G. Schalk, R. P. N. Rao, N. R. Anderson, D. W. Moran, J. W. Miller, and J. G. Ojemann, "Spectral changes in cortical surface potentials during motor movement," J.
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