The Facilitationor “kind of group”model states that the normative structure of a gang, coupled with group processes anddynamics, facilitate delinquency among youth. In other words, delinquent behavior is facilitated (or reinforced) because each of
its members are engaged in the same kind of delinquent activities. According to this model, delinquency will increase as long as someone is a gang member, but will be lower before membership and after someone leaves a gang. The enhancement modelis a combination of the Selection and Facilitation models. Youths who are already involved in delinquency are more likely to join a gang. This comes from theSelection model. After they have joined, their delinquency is likely to increase significantly, as suggested by the Facilitation model.Next slide.Slide 10Gangs and Gang Delinquency, continuedSeveral reasons for joining a gang have been identified by Martin Jankowski including:Material incentives: being a member of a gang increases opportunities to make money;Gangs can be sources of recreation. They provide entertainment and opportunities to meet girls;Gangs can also provide refuge or camouflage. Thus, a gang member can be anonymous; andGangs also provide physical protectionfrom other gangs.Adolescents often resistor reject their parents’ lifestylesas part of their identity development. Gang membership is one wayyouths can demonstrate their resistance or rejection as they mature.Finally, because of the territorial nature of gangs, gang membership can provide opportunities to demonstrate a form of patriotism and dedication to protecting one’s neighborhood.Next slide.Slide 11Gangs and Gang The motivations for joining a gang seem to vary according to sex. Males join gangs primarily for excitement, to have a
Delinquency, continuedterritory of their own, to make money, and for protection. They also join to achieve a sense of belonging to a group.Girls join gangs primarily for social reasons. As we’ve seen, females tend to be much more relationship-oriented than males. Gangs can provide opportunities for females to associate with other females. Girls are also motivated to join gangs to enhance their reputation and for protection.Next slide.Slide 12Gangs and Gang Delinquency, continuedA common myth that persists today states, “once a gang member, always a gang member.” Some members remain in gangs well into middle adulthood, but most drift in and out of gangs over the years. Some go to prison; some die from gang violence or drug abuse. Others, however, leave the gang lifestyle and get legitimate jobs, marry and have children, and lead productive lives. Still, leaving a gang can carry some risk. For example, once a gang member has announced his decision to leave the gang, it isnot uncommon for them to be subjected to physical punishment,known as a “beating out” ceremony, by other gang members.