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The facility which relies on a series of pay out

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. The facility, which relies on a series ofpay-out ‘triggers’, only releases funds once there have already been a certain number of cases, deathsand countries affected by an outbreak.A 2017 paper by Clare Wenham of the London School of Economics highlighted that, out of 60 pandemiccases studied, PEF would only have been triggered on two occasions,the outbreak of Rift Valley fever in2006 and Ebola in 2014-16. Meanwhile, by mid-2019, it had paid $114.5 million to private investors as
coupons, suggesting that it seems “to be serving private investor interests more than contributing toglobal health security.” At time of writing,no country has received PEF funds to prepare for the COVID-19 outbreak. While the funds are likely to be triggered soon with the COVID-19 crisis evolving veryrapidly, the delayed response has already prevented PEF from enhancing developing countries’ ability torespond to the crisis.The crisis comes in the context of IMF-imposed fiscal consolidation and the Bank’s use of public-privatepartnerships as one of the main policies to expand healthcare privatisation – linked to cuts in socialspending and private sector involvement – weakening countries’ health systems. These have erodedstates’ capacity to react to health crises such as COVID-19, as seen in Greece, among other countries,where the national health budget suffered a contraction of 36 per cent after exiting IMF loanprogrammes, as argued in a report produced by the Citizens for Financial Justice project in 2019 (seeObserver Autumn 2018, Spring 2017, Winter 2015).Source:-bank-and-the-imf/-19-response/United Nations1. Threat to national sovereigntySome critics of the UN have alleged that itthreatens national sovereignty and promotes globalism.Inthe United States, an early opponent of the UN was the John Birch Society, which began a "get US out ofthe UN" campaign in 1959, charging that the UN's aim was to establish a one-world government. Charlesde Gaulle of France criticized the UN, famously calling it le machin, and was not convinced that a globalsecurity alliance would help in maintaining world peace, preferring the UN to direct defense treatiesbetween countries.2. Debates surrounding population control and abortionThe United Nations Population Fund has been accused by different groups of providing support forgovernment programs which havepromoted forced-abortions and coercive sterilizations.Controversiesregarding these allegations have resulted in a sometimes shaky relationship between the organizationand the United States government, with three presidential administrations, that of Ronald Reagan,George H.W. Bush and George W. Bush withholding funding from the UNFPA.

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Term
Spring
Professor
N/A
Tags
United Nations, World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund

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