43 Shelley, 103 44 Shelley, 160 45 Shelley, 190
21 One additional borderline that supports the novel’s main theme is when Frankenstein decides to hunt and kill the monster which occurs on the ices of the North Pole. The Arctic ice has two meanings. It can symbolize the rift which exists between Frankenstein and the monster. The creature seeks a father in Frankenstein meanwhile Victor does everything to forget the monster, and keep it as far away as possible. This gap and alienation means that the monster has from the day of its birth and to the end of the novel been left alone to meet the world. Frankenstein, on the other hand chooses one more time to be alone, and wishes nothing more than to get rid of his creation. The ice can also symbolize the border that exists between the ship and the world. Maurice Hindle gives further examples of how the icy surroundings are connected with all the male protagonists’ narrative; Walton’s journey towards the North Pole, when Frankenstein tells his story when they are aboard the ship trapped in the solid Arctic ice, and when the creature tells its story to Victor at the mountain of Mount Blanc overlooking the sea of ice above Charmonix. 46 Hindle also declares that “having these stories told in such icy surroundings symbolically draws our attention to the conditions of social isolation” 47 The metaphor of ice demonstrates the cold, uninhabited, and unemotional element, where no human being can survive alone. According to Maurice Hindle, Mary Shelley again and again uses images of cold and heat, ice and fire, dark and light in her text to symbolize ironically the destructive effects of Frankenstein’s experiment to bring together the worlds of life and death. 48 Since the author uses images of antitheses such as heaven and hell, ice and fire, and dark and light throughout the novel, the borderlines become clearer and subsequently also easier to understand for the reader. Frankenstein’s family represent heaven, and the monster represents hell. The monster is forced to live in the sheltering darkness; Victor is fascinated by the secrets of life, and the 46 Hindle, 123 47 Hindle, 124 48 Hindle, 124
22 lighting which the author uses to represent the dark and the light. The reader can easily see the borderlines Mary Shelley has used in Frankenstein , and thereby it also has an important role in establishing the theme of alienation.
23 Conclusion The theme of alienation is without a doubt one of the most important theme in Frankenstein . Alienation is the common denominator between the three main characters. Victor Frankenstein is perhaps the only character that more or less chooses alienation by himself because of his desire for knowledge. In the end Victor becomes the prisoner of his own creation. The monster, on the other hand, is from its 'birth' a tabula rasa , it is the experiences the monster encounters in life that reflect its actions. The monster is greeted with disgust and violence even though it comes with friendly intensions. Subsequently it is forced into alienation in order to survive, and becomes the savage that mankind believes it is. By giving
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