DSST Anthropology as a Discipline

Marduk was connected with magic judgment water and

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Marduk was connected with magic, judgment, water, and vegetation. Hammurabi's law code reflects the desire for discipline and order in society and yet, showed that Mesopotamian civilization is pessimistic in outlook. Hammurabi was one of the most famous kings of Babylon. His most noted contribution was the creation of the world's first written, comprehensive law code, often referred to as the Code of Hammurabi. It is important to note, that laws did exist prior to Hammurabi. Law codes had always existed (usually passed down orally), and some had been written, but even the previous written ones were not complete and comprehensive. The Code of Hammurabi was a collection of all recognized laws, most made by judges in the past and not passed by Hammurabi himself. Hammurabi claimed that these laws were sanctioned by the gods, and had copies carved on markers to be placed in prominent locations such as temple courtyards. The authority of a Pharaoh was generally strong as evidenced by the pyramids of the Old Kingdom and the imperialism of Thutmose III and Ramses II. The kings of ancient Egypt were known as pharaohs. The authority of a pharaoh is referred to as Pharaonic Authority. The Hittites were responsible for the smelting of iron. The Assyrians established an empire which by 665 B.C. included Palestine, Syria, and much of Asia Minor down to the Persian Gulf in the southeast.
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In addition to maintaining and ruthlessly exploiting their empire, the Assyrians served as a buffer to the civilized Middle East against the barbarians on the frontiers. The Assyrian empire finally fell because of internal revolution and a defeat in 612 B.C.E. by the Neo- Babylonians (Chaldeans). While these empires rose and fell, the most important intellectual development was that of the Hebrew religion. The Israelites (or Hebrews) were a people, like the Phoenicians, who flourished in the political vacuum left by the weakening of the Egyptian empire and the annihilation of the Hittites around 1200 B.C. The Israelites were responsible for a religious revolution founded on the concept of a single, universal God who had a covenant with his chosen people. God was a just judge who required obedience to his laws. The early Greeks (Thales, Xenophanes, Pythagoras and Hippocrates) tried to understand the world without reference to supernatural powers, but rather with emphasis on logic and observation. In this, and in other ways, the Greeks differed radically from Near Eastern thought. As more people began living in the same area, various forms of government developed. Ranging from strong centralized monarchy (Hittites, Assyrians, Babylonians, Israelites, etc.), to the less centralized monarchies of the city-states in Sumeria, to the theocracy of Egypt. Egypt was protected by deserts and the sea and nourished by the Nile which flooded regularly; it was less prone to invasion and hence more secure politically.
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