The cultivation of wheat, barley, and flax
Asiatic developments that first entered Africa
through the Nile Delta.
The cultivation of one form of wheat may have originated in Ethiopia, however.
In Egypt, civilization first reached its full development around 3000 BC, but though it passed through
Copper and Bronze ages and introduced copper tools to The Sudan, there is no evidence of either of
these ages in the rest of Africa
In the rest of Africa, a transition from the Stone Age, generally still Mesolithic in type, directly to the Iron Age took
place gradually during the last two millennia and in a few places did not take place until the middle of the 20th
century. However, in some localities, an intermediate state, when Neolithic forms were used, occurred (e.g., Zaire
and Ghana). Elsewhere (e.g., Kenya) polished-stone celts, or axes, seem so rare that they may have been
comparatively late imports from the north.
culture grew in southern Mesopotamia, near the Persian Gulf. They established the social,
economic and intellectual foundations of Mesopotamian culture and were followed by Akkadians and
Babylonians who united the region.
These peoples contributed important advances in technology (bronze tools and weapons), in writing (cuneiform), law,
education and religious thought.
Early Sumerian temples were built on the ruins of the last one, and they developed into stepped towers
called Ziggurats (from an Assyrian word meaning pinnacles
The ziggurat of Ur was built by King Ur-Nammu and dedicated to the Sumerian moon goddess, Nanna.
The Babylonians also built many ziggurats
, which served as temples to their various gods and
goddesses. Their highest god was Marduk.
Marduk was connected with magic, judgment, water, and vegetation.
Hammurabi's law code reflects the desire for discipline and order in society and yet, showed that
civilization is pessimistic in outlook.
Hammurabi was one of the most famous kings of Babylon. His most noted contribution was the creation of the
world's first written, comprehensive law code, often referred to as the Code of Hammurabi. It is important to note, that
laws did exist prior to Hammurabi. Law codes had always existed (usually passed down orally), and some had been
written, but even the previous written ones were not complete and comprehensive. The Code of Hammurabi was a
collection of all recognized laws, most made by judges in the past and not passed by Hammurabi himself.
Hammurabi claimed that these laws were sanctioned by the gods, and had copies carved on markers to be placed in
prominent locations such as temple courtyards.
The authority of a Pharaoh was generally strong as evidenced by the pyramids
of the Old Kingdom and
the imperialism of Thutmose III and Ramses II.
The kings of ancient Egypt were known as pharaohs. The authority of a pharaoh is referred to as Pharaonic Authority.