DSST Anthropology as a Discipline

The cultivation of wheat barley and flax probably

Info iconThis preview shows pages 13–14. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
The cultivation of wheat, barley, and flax probably were Asiatic developments that first entered Africa through the Nile Delta. The cultivation of one form of wheat may have originated in Ethiopia, however. In Egypt, civilization first reached its full development around 3000 BC, but though it passed through Copper and Bronze ages and introduced copper tools to The Sudan, there is no evidence of either of these ages in the rest of Africa . In the rest of Africa, a transition from the Stone Age, generally still Mesolithic in type, directly to the Iron Age took place gradually during the last two millennia and in a few places did not take place until the middle of the 20th century. However, in some localities, an intermediate state, when Neolithic forms were used, occurred (e.g., Zaire and Ghana). Elsewhere (e.g., Kenya) polished-stone celts, or axes, seem so rare that they may have been comparatively late imports from the north. The Sumerian culture grew in southern Mesopotamia, near the Persian Gulf. They established the social, economic and intellectual foundations of Mesopotamian culture and were followed by Akkadians and Babylonians who united the region. These peoples contributed important advances in technology (bronze tools and weapons), in writing (cuneiform), law, education and religious thought. Early Sumerian temples were built on the ruins of the last one, and they developed into stepped towers called Ziggurats (from an Assyrian word meaning pinnacles ). The ziggurat of Ur was built by King Ur-Nammu and dedicated to the Sumerian moon goddess, Nanna. The Babylonians also built many ziggurats , which served as temples to their various gods and goddesses. Their highest god was Marduk. Marduk was connected with magic, judgment, water, and vegetation. Hammurabi's law code reflects the desire for discipline and order in society and yet, showed that Mesopotamian civilization is pessimistic in outlook. Hammurabi was one of the most famous kings of Babylon. His most noted contribution was the creation of the world's first written, comprehensive law code, often referred to as the Code of Hammurabi. It is important to note, that laws did exist prior to Hammurabi. Law codes had always existed (usually passed down orally), and some had been written, but even the previous written ones were not complete and comprehensive. The Code of Hammurabi was a collection of all recognized laws, most made by judges in the past and not passed by Hammurabi himself. Hammurabi claimed that these laws were sanctioned by the gods, and had copies carved on markers to be placed in prominent locations such as temple courtyards. The authority of a Pharaoh was generally strong as evidenced by the pyramids of the Old Kingdom and the imperialism of Thutmose III and Ramses II. The kings of ancient Egypt were known as pharaohs. The authority of a pharaoh is referred to as Pharaonic Authority.
Background image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 14
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Page13 / 27

The cultivation of wheat barley and flax probably were...

This preview shows document pages 13 - 14. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online