Plan didn’t work from the start o NLF victories continue unabated - Washington & Saigon switch focus to rural countryside o Launch “Strategic Hamlet Program” Villagers rounded up and forced into “safe hamlets” constructed by GVN Goal: cut NLF off from villagers (its support) - Nobody likes Diem because of his corruption when dealing with political, agricultural, social etc. issues of Vietnam - Became breeding ground for more Communism - Results of Strategic Hamlet Plan: o Diem became more than distant annoyance for villagers o Produced more recruits for NLF - Ho Chi-minh leads North; Viet Minh in Communist North are Communist - Diem; Viet Cong in Democratic South are Communist - Diem is anti-Communist; Catholic The End of Diem 5
May 31 st , 2011 - Middle 1963: Buddhists in Vietnam were raided by Diem’s secret police force (led by his brother) - Sparks riots all over the country - 1,500 people were arrested after rioting because of these attacks - U.S. ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge took to the streets to ask people how they felt about the gov as he had ability to change American aid in Vietnam - Wanted to see if they should support Diem or a rival of Diem - Found out that Diem’s brother was going to purge the South Vietnamese military (kill everybody) - Tells Diem that if he does not take out his brother, U.S. will cut off aid - Lodge chooses to support the military instead of, and against Diem - If reform is not put in place, U.S. aid will stop and advisors will leave - Summer of 1963 saw South Vietnam at verge of Collapse o Ngo Dinh Nhu (Diem’s brother) attacked Buddist pagodas Claimed they were harbouring Communists o Monks respond by protests of self-immolation of streets of Saigon - World opinion (due to footage of burning monks) turned on South Vietnam o JFK approves of coup to remove Diem from power - November 1 st , 1963, Generals in ARVN (South Vietnam Army) capture and later kill Diem & brother o JFK killed in Dallas 3 weeks later (Nov. 22 nd ) - At this time, U.S. had 16,000 military advisers on ground in South Vietnam - Up to this point, no large-scale U.S. combat troops involved, but: o Napalm, free-fire zones & Agent Orange widely used - JFK’s Vice President, Lynden B. Johnson (LBJ) takes over Presidency o Major policy shift occurs - South is extremely vulnerable - North Vietnamese believe they can win by the end of 1965 6
May 31 st , 2011 Gulf of Tonkin Incident - Pres. Johnson takes aggressive role in Vietnam - Uses “attacks” on U.S. ships C. Turner Joy & Maddox in “international waters” as pretext to war - Johnson believed he had to maintain control in Vietnam - Abandoned domestic affairs such as poverty, racism etc. as Vietnam cost too much money - He wants this money to go to Vietnam so he does not look like a coward to his people - U.S. citizens still aware of “domino effect” and wanted to maintain containment - By 1964, South was on verge of collapse - Could fall to North, become a full Communist country - If Johnson could keep Vietnam, he would increase in popularity in U.S.
- Fall '10
- History, Vietnam War, south vietnam