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Two kinds of poor: Deserving (widows and orphans) and Undeserving (anyone who was poor outright). **He was a social Darwinist who was redefining the American Dream by promoting that if you work hard you can have what youwant.Gospel of WealthWho: Andrew CarnegieWhat: Famous essay written by CarnegieWhere: Pittsburgh When: 1889Why: Men of wealth had a duty to furnish some assistance to the poor, mainly through philanthropy (building institutions that would raise educational and cultural standards) NOT charity (direct handouts). Believed men should contribute by making the community better and providing opportunities for the less fortunate. “Help those who will help themselves”Tom Watson pg. 547Who: Agrarian RadicalWhat: Lawyer who gained fame as a racial progressor and sought black votes. Joined the People’s Party in 1892. As a Populist, he did not support free silver.Where: GeorgiaWhen: 1896Why: The populist vice presidential candidate, who had assisted embattled black farmers in his home state of Georgia, called on citizens of both races to vote against the crushing power of corporations and railroads. However, after the 1896 election, he embarked on a viscous campaign to exclude blacks from voting and also disfranchised African Americans while maintaining white supremacy. In doing so, he thought that poor whites would have the courage to vote against rich whites. Tom Watson was and example of the Populist Party switching to exclude blacks because this encouraged more poor whites to vote for the partyInterstate Commerce Commission: pg. 539Who: CongressWhat: A commission established by the Interstate Commerce Act with the intent to regulate railroads. Big business ultimately managed to render government regulation largely ineffective.
Where: All across the USWhen: 1887Why: Designed to regulate railroads however, large railroad lines found it easier to influence the ICC and in time, railroad advocates came to dominate the ICC and enforced the law in favor of the railway lines rather than the shippers. Just another example of a failed attempt for farmers and gain for capitalists/railroad owners. Knights of Labor: pg. 532Who: Founded by Uriah Stephens. This was a very large group of working class men and four years later women as well who saw the relationship between employer and employee as a failure and not mutually beneficial.What: Labor Union/National Workers’ Organization. This was a Christian Based Union.Where: MassachusettsWhen: 1869Why: First majorly influential large-scale union. It won battles for the workers before being succeeded by the more effective AFL. Initiated the most extensive campaign after the Civil War to unite workers and challenge the power of corporate capitalists. Initiated wage slavery. Labor unions were seen as the best vehicle for communication and negotiation between workers and owners. The K.O.L. did not begin to flourish until Terence Powderly replaced Stephens.