Significant during song rule some characteristics of

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significant during Song rule. Some characteristics of these economic revolutions are:Increasing agricultural production - Before this era, Chinese agriculture had been basedon the production of wheat and barley raised in the north. The Tang conquest of southernChina and Vietnam added a whole new capability for agriculture; the cultivation of rice.In Vietnam they made use of a new strain of fast-ripening rice that allowed theproduction of two crops per year. The Tang also organized extensive irrigation systems,so that agricultural production was able to move outward from the rivers.Urbanization - The agricultural revolution also meant that established cities grew andnew ones were created. The Tang capital of Xi'an was probably the largest city in the
world.Many other Chinese cities had populations of more than 100,000. This was likelybecause rice production was so successful and the Silk Road and Indian Ocean trade wasvigorous.Technological innovations - During Tang times craftsmen discovered techniques forproducing porcelain that was lighter, thinner, more useful, and much more beautiful. TheTang and Song are best known for the new technologies they invented, such asgunpowder, movable type printing, and seafaring aids, such as the magnetic compass.Financial inventions - Chinese merchants developed paper money as an alternative tocoins. Letters of credit called "flying cash" allowed merchants to deposit money in onelocation and have it available in another.NEO-CONFUCIANISMThe conflict between Buddhism and Confucianism during the late Tang Dynasty eased under theSong, partly because of the development of Neo-Confucianism. Neo-Confucians also becamefamiliar with Buddhist beliefs. This new form of Confucianism was an important developmentbecause it reconciled Confucianism with Buddhism, and because it influenced philosophicalthought in China, Korea, Vietnam, and Japan in all subsequent eras.PATRIARCHAL SOCIAL STRUCTURESAs wealth and agricultural productivity increase, the patriarchal social structure of Chinesesociety also tightened. The custom of foot binding became very popular among wealthy families.Foot binding involved tightly wrapping young girls' feet so that natural growth was seriouslyimpaired. The result was a tiny malformed foot with the toes curled under and the bonesbreaking in the process. Peasants and middle class women did not bind their feet because it wasimpractical, but for elite women, the practice - like wearing veils in Islamic lands - indicatedtheir subservience to their male guardians.KUBLAI KHAN AND THE YUAN DYNASTYKublai Khan broke through the Great Wall, captured China and set up a new capital in Beijing,which he called Khanbalik, or "city of the Khan." This was the city that Marco Polo described tothe world as the finest and richest in all the world. Under Kublai Khan, China was unified, andits borders grew significantly. Although Mongols replaced the top bureaucrats, many lowerConfucian officials remained in place, and the Khan clearly respected Chinese customs and

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