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O men more likely than women to behave violently when

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oMen more likely than women to behave violently when sleeping disorders.Until 20thcentury – not much investigation of sleep – appeared to be associated with nobehavior.1950s – this changed?Eugene Aserinsky?recording eye movements and brain waves from 8yr. old son in laboWas there rhythm or pattern to eye movements throughout entire night sleep?oRapid eye movement (REM) sleep:When eyes moved back and forth duringsleep --/. Brain wave activity looked like when awake (they were still sleepingthough)Being awakened during this stage of sleep – subjects reported dreaming.William Dement?continued interest in sleep and dreamingoChartered subject’s brain wave activity throughout entire night of sleep.oIdentify several stages + patterns of brain activity during this quiet time.
The Rhythms of Sleep and WakefulnessCircadian RhythmsKleitman?project focusing on rest and activity cycles lead to circadian rhythmsdiscipline.Circadian rhythms:responses such as timing of our sleep and wake cycles, with distinctdaily rhythms.oBy removing presence of light, a powerfulzeitgeber,oDemonstrated daily rest and activity cycles are regulated by internal mechanismswhen the environmental triggers such as light are removed.oFree-running rhythms:internal rhythmsDemonstrated in maintenance of rest and running rhythms of rats housedin total darkness.Also in blind human – exhibit free-running rhythms.Contemporary zeitgebers?alarm clocks, city sounds, voices of familymembers, etc.Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN):nucleus of the hypothalamus which receives stimulationfrom light via tracts extending from the retina (i.e. retinohypothalamic tracts)Michael Menaker?bread mutant strain of hamster – shorter than normal circadianrhythm (~21 hrs.)oRestored atypical rhythm to normal duration after transplanting cells form SCN ofwild-type hamsters.SCN neural messages – related solely to the detection of light in the environment not tointerpretation of visual stimuli.oDetection of sun rising in morning and setting in evening?significant impact onthe evolution of sleep-wake cycles.SCN disrupted?physiological systems – desynchronized.oE.g. SCN lesioned in lab rats?peak in hormone corticosterone that occurs priorto the dark phase disappears.oStill experience pulsing bursts of corticosterone typically recur throughout the 24hr. cycle.oEvidence ofultradian rhythms(rhythms with period shorter than 24 hrs.) of thissystem do not appear to be in control of SCN.oExact source of ultradian r remains unknownoRats – nocturnal?circadian rhythms differ from humans.Humans?stress hormone cortisol (like corticosterone in animals) – peaks around6:00am as we are rising and preparing for a day of activity.

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Term
Fall
Professor
DavidHill

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