the cellular nucleus a butterfly rash (localized to cheeks), photosensitivity, nonerosive arthritis of at least two peripheral joints, serositis (inflammation of serous sacs i.e. pericardial and pleural sacs), arthralgias, pulmonary hemorrhage, proteinuria, seizures, anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Symptoms and intensity vary, with no way of predicting either Antibody antigen complexes are deposited in a variety of tissues (kidneys, lungs, joints, skin and blood vessels [vasculitis]) and this results in the activation of complement, the inflammatory response and ultimately causes tissue damage. Rheumatoid Arthritis IgM autoantibodies are formed against IgG antibodies and they bind together and form an antigen antibody complex. widespread, symmetrical joint swelling, erythemic joints which are warm to touch, loss of function in the joints, morning stiffness that improves with movement, weight loss, weakness, and These antigen antibody complexes are deposited in the synovial membranes. The membranes are then infiltrated with T-cells, plasma cells, macrophages and the inflammatory process is started. This causes
anorexia. Extra- synovial rheumatoid nodules may be present most commonly in the extensor surfaces of the elbows and fingers. These nodules can be invasive and may involve cardiac valves, pericardium, pleura, lung parenchyma and spleen. The joints of the fingers and feet, wrists, elbows, ankles and knees are most commonly affected. The HLA-DRB1 gene is associated with an increased risk of developing RA tissue damage which results in the characteristic joint inflammation, pain and the destruction of synovial membranes. This is a progressive disease and the damage is irreversible f. Analyze the pathophysiology of solid organ transplant rejection. i. The process of rejection is basically an immune response to the transplanted organ and is most commonly T-cell mediated. g. Examine the role of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in solid organ rejection. i. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is made up of proteins called HLA antigens. The histocompatibility genes are responsible for the coding of these proteins and are located on chromosome 6. The location of the histocompatibility genes is known as the major histocompatibility complex. HLA, as mentioned, is the targeted response for transplant organ rejection. Tissue typing occurs prior to most transplants to identify the HLA of both the recipient and the donor to match them as closely as possible to decrease the risk of rejection. Class I antigens are HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C and are found in most human cells. They are primarily responsible for organ rejection. Class II antigens are found on macrophages, dendritic cells, Langerhans cells, B cells and T cells. Some diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis are associated with the presence of a specific HLA antigen. Persons with HLA-B27 antigen are at an increased risk of developing ankylosing spondylitis.
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- Fall '15