Ideas put forth in the "Atlanta Compromise" ,1895 (paved the way for Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896 ) d. Ironically, Washington labored secretly against Jim Crow laws and racial violence, writing letters in code names and protecting blacks from lynch mobs. His efforts, however, were little known in his time. H. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) capped the failure of Reconstruction by making it constitutional to segregate the black and white races: "Separate but equal" 1. Court ruled that separation was legal so long as facilities were equal. 2. This ruling henceforth applied to schools and other public places. 3. Remained intact until Brown v. Board of Education in 1954. I. W.E.B. DuBois: opposed Washington ’s views and demanded immediate social and economic equality for blacks. 1. His opposition to Washington as well as other blacks led to the formation of the Niagara Movement (1905-1909) a. Demanded immediate end to segregation and to discrimination in the unions, courts, and public facilities. b. Demanded equality of economic and educational opportunity. c. Laid the groundwork for the creation of the NAACP in 1910 2. DuBois demanded that the "talented tenth" of the black community be given full and immediate access to the mainstream of American life. This would enable this group to help lift up the rest of the African American community J. NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) 1. After Springfield Race Riots in 1909, a group of white progressives including Jane Addams, John Dewey, William Dean Howells, and editor Oswald Garrison Villard formed the NAACP (1910) 2. Adopted many of the goals of the Niagara movement 3. Du Bois became director of publicity and research, and editor of the NAACP journal, The Crisis . 4. Goal: attainment of equal rights for blacks through the use of lawsuits in federal courts. 5. Opposed the political and economic subordination of blacks by promoting the leadership of a trained, black elite.
HistorySage.com APUSH Lecture Notes Page 15 Unit 5.5: Reconstruction © HistorySage.com 2014 All Rights Reserved Terms to Know Thirteenth Amendment Freedmen’s Bureau President Andrew Johnson Presidential Reconstruction “10% Plan” Wade-Davis Bill Black Codes Congressional Reconstruction Civil Rights Bill of 1866 Fourteenth Amendment Radical Republicans Charles Sumner Thaddeus Stephens Moderate Republicans Military Reconstruction Act impeachment of Johnson Fifteenth Amendment Hiram R. Revels Blanche K. Bruce “Scalawags” “Carpetbaggers” Ku Klux Klan (KKK) Force Acts (Enforcement Acts) “Solid South” “Lost Cause” “Redeemers” “Bourbons” Civil Rights Act of 1875 Compromise of 1877 President Rutherford B. Hayes Ex Parte Milligan, 1866 sharecropping crop lien laws “Slaughterhouse” cases “Civil Rights” cases poll taxes literacy tests “grandfather” clauses gerrymandering “Jim Crow” laws lynching Ida B. Wells-Barnett Booker T. Washington Tuskegee Institute “accommodation” “Atlanta Compromise” Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896 “separate but equal” W. E. B. Du Bois Niagara Movement
- Spring '16
- Mr. Korn
- Southern United States, Reconstruction era of the United States, Andrew Johnson, APUSH Lecture Notes, HistorySage.com APUSH Lecture