Hankins also began to exploit this opportunity but focused initially on solar

Hankins also began to exploit this opportunity but

This preview shows page 43 - 46 out of 136 pages.

Hankins also began to exploit this opportunity but focused initially on solar training. Through his own company, Energy Alternatives Africa (EAA), LOW-CARBON INNOVATION AND DEVELOPMENT 37
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he won project funding to support experimenta-tion with ideas for further developing the SHS market. Over the next decades, EAA became an important player in Kenya, implementing many donor-funded projects. These projects included in-stalling PV systems in community buildings, such as schools and hospitals, along with the training of local technicians. Other projects involved de-veloping and testing various products or balance-of-system components, such as solar lanterns or charge regulators. Some projects experimented with building local manufacturing capacity for solar batteries, while others tested various financ-ing mechanisms, such as microcredit through local savings and credit cooperatives. EAA can be seen as an innovation system opera- tor in the Kenyan SHS domain. The worth of this market is now about USD 6 million annually and more than 320,000 SHS are installed in homes across the country (Byrne, 2011; Ondraczek, 2013). Further advances have been observed sub- Source: Byrne and Ockwell (2013). The multilevel interdependency between national and technology-specific LICS implies that, as new technologies and knowledge are developed, adapt- ed, disseminated, or used in the national LICS, this knowledge is itself transformed. One implica-tion is that building technology-specific LICS (at sequently. For example, the Kenyan government – for many years hostile to PV (and other renew- able energy technologies) – recently implemented a large project to install PV systems in schools, a project worth about a third of the annual SHS mar- ket. Kenya now has a feed-in tariff for PV. A recent development is the start of solar module assembly through a Dutch-Kenyan joint venture (see http:// ). Earlier, a Chinese company had shown an interest in manufacturing modules in Kenya (Disenyana, 2009) but the deal fell apart fol- lowing the postelection violence in 2008. It is also worth noting that, contrary to widely disseminated rhetoric, development of the Kenyan SHS market was not led by the private sector. Instead, it depend-ed crucially on donor interventions to create spaces for experimentation and learning, interventions that often involved private sector actors who then used the learning to further develop their market activities. lower levels of aggregation) constitutes a diversifica- tion and transformation of the national LICS (at higher aggregation levels) because LICS are open and recursive systems. Hence, the process of build-ing technology-specific LICS is necessarily embed-ded in and co-evolves with the national LICS. In 38 GLOBELICS THEMATIC REVIEW
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this perspective, a low-carbon transformation of the energy sector (from black and brown to green) be-comes a matter of building renewable energy LICS in a process where national LICS are made more low carbon.
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