Countries rose from around 75 million at the start of

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countries rose from around 75 million at the start of 2000 to more than 100 million at the close of the decade (OECD, 2014a). In addition, in a period of almost 25 years (1990-2013), the number of international migrants born in the South and residing in the North 1 doubled, increasing from 40 to 82 million and growing more than twice as fast as the global total (United Nations, 2014). Migration in the European Union presents a mixed picture nowadays, with Eastern European migrants moving to the West predominant (Favell, 2008). Europe remains the most popular destination with 72 million international migrants in 2013 (United Nations Information Service, 2013). The latest data from Eurostat (2014a) reports that during 2012 there were an estimated 1.7 million immigrants to the EU-27 from outside countries. In addition, 1.7 million people previously residing in one of the EU member states migrated to another member state. Germany reported the largest number of immigrants (592,200) in 2012, followed by the United Kingdom (498,000), Italy (350,800), France (327,400) and Spain (304,100). A total of 14 of the EU-27 member states reported more immigration than emigration in 2012; however, emigrants outnumbered immigrants in the following countries: Bulgaria (NMS), the Czech Republic (NMS), Ireland, Greece, Spain, Cyprus (NMS), Poland (NMS), Portugal, Romania (NMS) and the three Baltic Member States (NMS) (Eurostat, 2014a). This data presents a trend according to which central and northern European countries are the preferred destinations for immigrants, while people from the south-east European countries emigrate to other countries (Carella and Pace, 2002). In addition, it has to be stressed that the new member states report higher emigration numbers, explained by high rates of unemployment (e.g. 25.7% in Greece in September 2014) (Eurostat, 2014b) and economic crises (e.g. in Cyprus, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Romania and Spain) (Smith, 2014b). A special note has to be made for Cyprus, as it recorded one of the highest numbers of immigrants in 2012 (20 immigrants per 1,000 persons) and the highest rate of emigration (21 emigrants per 1,000 persons) (Eurostat, 2014a). Another issue that has to be considered is that southern European countries form Europe’s borders with the outside world. For example, Spain, Italy, Greece, Malta (NMS) and Cyprus (NMS) welcome thousands of immigrants every year due to their geographical positions (Reyneri, 2003) which place them on the front line, forcing them to deal with a disproportionate number of migrants from North Africa and Asia. People try to reach European soil by climbing the razor-wire fences that surround Spain’s North African territories of Ceuta and Melilla (New York Times, 2014), by crowding into overloaded boats in the Mediterranean (Price, 2014), which is an everyday incident in Lampedusa (Nelson, 2014) and the Greek islands (Smith, 2014c), or by crossing the border between Greece and Turkey (Trilling, 2014), which has been called the ‘back door to Europe’ (Kennedy, 2012). In addition to the southern borders, the European Union’s 6,000 kilometre land border between Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine and the Russian Federation and its

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