O callias and this horse are particular substances

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Man and animal are universal substances (Aristotle calls them “secondary substances.”) o Callias and “this horse” are particular substances. (Aristotle calls them “primary substances.”) o White and color are universal qualities. o “This white” is a particular quality. Category Trees a. Each category can be thought of as having a tree structure . The category itself can be divided into its fundamental kinds (e.g., substance can be divided into plants and animals). Each of these kinds can in turn be divided (e.g., animal can be divided into the various broad genera of animals). Each of these can in turn be divided into the fundamental species of the category in questions (e.g., into such basic kinds as tiger , and horse , and human being) . (All of these kinds— animal, tiger, horse—are what Aristotle calls “secondary substances”.) Finally, we can divide these lowest-level kinds into the basic individuals in the category (e.g., human being can be divided into Socrates, Callias, Coriscus, etc.). b. Similarly, the category of quality can be divided into subcategories such as color , which can in turn be divided into red , green , etc. Aristotle thinks that these specific qualities can be further divided into individuals (analogous to individual substances) such as this individual bit of white .
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